Distance Sampling References

An extensive but non exhaustive list of distance sampling related references

To search within these references, simply type the name of an author or subject into the "QuickSearch" box, and references containing that string will immediately be displayed. You can also sort on any column by single-clicking on the column header. Please contact Tiago Marques (email below) for adding, removing, or correcting entries. See the following info on preferred format for new entries. Also very welcome are links to existing or to new references.

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AuthorYearTitleJournal/ProceedingsDOI/URL/PDF
Aars, J., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A., Buckland, S. T., Marques, T. A. & Wiig, Ø. 2005 Line transect estimate of the subpopulation size of polar bears in the Barents Sea Polar Bears :173-175     PDF  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Aars2005,
  author = {Aars, J. and Andersen, M. and Belikov, S. and Boltunov, A. and Buckland, S. T. and Marques, T. A. and Wiig, {\O}.},
  title = {Line transect estimate of the subpopulation size of polar bears in the Barents Sea},
  booktitle = {Polar Bears},
  year = {2005},
  number = {Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group},
  pages = {173-175}
}
Aars, J., Marques, T. A., Buckland, S. T., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A. & Wiig, Ø. 2009 Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size Marine Mammal Science 25:35--52     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Aars2008,
  author = {J. Aars and T. A. Marques and S. T. Buckland and M. Andersen and S. Belikov and A. Boltunov and {\O}. Wiig},
  title = {Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {35--52}
}
Acevedo, P., Ferreres, J., Jaroso, R., Durán, M., Escudero, M., Marco, J. & Gortázar, C. 2010 Estimating roe deer abundance from pellet group counts in Spain: An assessment of methods suitable for Mediterranean woodlands Ecological Indicators 10:1226 - 1230   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Acevedo2010,
  author = {P. Acevedo and J. Ferreres and R. Jaroso and M. Durán and M.A. Escudero and J. Marco and C. Gortázar},
  title = {Estimating roe deer abundance from pellet group counts in Spain: An assessment of methods suitable for Mediterranean woodlands},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1226 - 1230},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X10000762},
  doi = {10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.04.006}
}
Acevedo, P., Ruiz-Fons, F., Vicente, J., Reyes-García, A. R., Alzaga, V. & Gortázar, C. 2008 Estimating red deer abundance in a wide range of management situations in Mediterranean habitats Journal Of Zoology 276:37--47      
BibTeX:
@article{Acevedo2008,
  author = {Acevedo, P and Ruiz-Fons, F and Vicente, J and Reyes-García, A. R. and Alzaga, V and Gortázar, C},
  title = {Estimating red deer abundance in a wide range of management situations in Mediterranean habitats},
  journal = {Journal Of Zoology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {276},
  pages = {37--47}
}
Akin, J. A. 1998 Fourier series estimation of ground skink population density Copeia :519--522      
BibTeX:
@article{Aki98,
  author = {Akin, J. A.},
  title = {Fourier series estimation of ground skink population density},
  journal = {Copeia},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {519--522}
}
Aldrin, M., Holden, M. & Schweder, T. 2003 Comment on Cowling's `spatial methods for line transect surveys' Biometrics 59:186--88      
BibTeX:
@article{Aldetal03,
  author = {Aldrin, M. and Holden, M. and Schweder, T.},
  title = {Comment on {C}owling's `spatial methods for line transect surveys'},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {186--88}
}
Alldredge, J. R. & Gates, C. E. 1985 Line transect estimators for left-truncated distributions Biometrics 41:273--280      
BibTeX:
@article{AllGat85,
  author = {Alldredge, J. R. and Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Line transect estimators for left-truncated distributions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {273--280}
}
Alldredge, M. W., Pacifici, K., Simons, T. R. & Pollock, K. H. 2008 A novel field evaluation of the effectiveness of distance and independent observer sampling to estimate aural avian detection probabilities Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1349--1356      
BibTeX:
@article{Alldredge2008,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Krishna Pacifici and T. R. Simons and K. H. Pollock},
  title = {A novel field evaluation of the effectiveness of distance and independent observer sampling to estimate aural avian detection probabilities},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1349--1356}
}
Alldredge, M. W., Pollock, K. H., Simons, T. & Shriner, S. A. 2007 Multiple-species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modeling framework Journal of Applied Ecology 44:281--290      
BibTeX:
@article{Alletal2007a,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and K. H. Pollock and T.R. Simons and S. A. Shriner},
  title = {Multiple-species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modeling framework},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {281--290}
}
Alldredge, M. W., Simons, T. R. & Pollock, K. H. 2007 A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point count surveys Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2759--2766   URL   PDF  
Abstract: Detection distance is an important and common auxiliary variable measured during avian point count surveys. Distance data are used to determine the area sampled and to model the detection process using distance sampling theory. In densely forested habitats, visual detections of birds are rare, and most estimates of detection distance are based on auditory cues. Distance sampling theory assumes detection distances are measured accurately, but empirical validation of this assumption for auditory detections is lacking. We used a song playback system to simulate avian point counts with known distances in a forested habitat to determine the error structure of distance estimates based on auditory detections. We conducted field evaluations with 6 experienced observers both before and after distance estimation training. We conducted additional studies to determine the effect of height and speaker orientation (toward or away from observers) on distance estimation error. Distance estimation errors for all evaluations were substantial, although training reduced errors and bias in distance estimates by approximately 15%. Measurement errors showed a nonlinear relationship to distance. Our results suggest observers were not able to differentiate distances beyond 65 m. The height from which we played songs had no effect on distance estimation errors in this habitat. The orientation of the song source did have a large effect on distance estimation errors; observers generally doubled their distance estimates for songs played away from them compared with distance estimates for songs played directly toward them. These findings, which we based on realistic field conditions, suggest measures of uncertainty in distance estimates to auditory detections are substantially higher than assumed by most researchers. This means aural point count estimates of avian abundance based on distance methods deserve careful scrutiny because they are likely biased.
Review: Distance estimation errors for all experiments were substantial, although, training did reduce errors and bias in distance estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Alldredge2007,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and T. R. Simons, and K. H. Pollock},
  title = {A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point count surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {2759--2766},
  note = {preprint Alldredgeetal0000.pdf},
  url = {http://www.wildlifejournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-toc&issn=0022-541X&volume=71&issue=8}
}
Alldredge, M. W., Simons, T. R. & Pollock, K. H. 2007 Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds Ecological Applications 17:948--955     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Alletal0000b,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and T. R. Simons, and K. H. Pollock},
  title = {Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {948--955}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. 1997 Assessing assumption violation in line transect sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{ALP97,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara,R.},
  title = {Assessing assumption violation in line transect sampling},
  school = {North Carolina State University},
  year = {1997}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. & Pollock, K. H. 1999 Combining line transect and capture-recapture for mark-resighting studies Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :99--114      
BibTeX:
@incollection{AJPol99,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {Combining line transect and capture-recapture for mark-resighting studies},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {99--114}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. & Pollock, K. H. 1996 A combination line transect and capture recapture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys Environmental and Ecological Statistics 3:311--27      
BibTeX:
@article{AJPol96,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A combination line transect and capture recapture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {311--27}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R., Pollock, K. H. & Haines, D. E. 2005 Mark-recapture estimators for dual frame population size of prominent nesting structures: the effect of uncertain detection probability Environmental and Ecological Statistics 12:155-168   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Alpizar-Jara2005,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, Russell and Pollock, Kenneth H. and Haines, Dawn E.},
  title = {Mark-recapture estimators for dual frame population size of prominent nesting structures: the effect of uncertain detection probability},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {155-168},
  doi = {10.1007/s10651-005-1039-0}
}
Alves, J., da Silva, A. A., Soares, A. M. & Fonseca, C. 2013 Pellet group count methods to estimate red deer densities: Precision, potential accuracy and efficiency Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde  78:134 - 141   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Alves2013a,
  author = {Joana Alves and António Alves da Silva and Amadeu M.V.M. Soares and Carlos Fonseca},
  title = {Pellet group count methods to estimate red deer densities: Precision, potential accuracy and efficiency },
  journal = {Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde },
  year = {2013},
  volume = {78},
  number = {2},
  pages = {134 - 141},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S161650471200256X},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2012.08.003}
}
Anadon, J., Gimenez, A. & Ballestar, R. 2010 Linking local ecological knowledge and habitat modelling to predict absolute species abundance on large scales Biodiversity and Conservation 19:1443-1454   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10531-009-9774-4,
  author = {Anadon, Jose and Gimenez, Andres and Ballestar, Ruben},
  title = {Linking local ecological knowledge and habitat modelling to predict absolute species abundance on large scales},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {1443-1454},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9774-4},
  doi = {10.1007/s10531-009-9774-4}
}
Ancrenaz, M., Gimenez, O., Ambu, L., Ancrenaz, K., Andau, P., Goossens, B., Payne, J., Sawang, A., Tuuga, A. & Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2005 Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia PLoS Biol 3:1-8     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Ancrenaz2005,
  author = {Ancrenaz, M and Gimenez, O and Ambu, L and Ancrenaz, K and Andau, P and Goossens, B and Payne, J and Sawang, A and Tuuga, A and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I},
  title = {Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in {Sabah, Malaysia}},
  journal = {PLoS Biol},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1-8}
}
Ancrenaz, M., Goossens, B., Gimenez, O., Sawang, A. & Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2004 Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia Animal Conservation 7:375-385     PDF  
Review: example of design to deal with potential density gradient
BibTeX:
@article{Ancrenaz2004,
  author = {Marc Ancrenaz and Benoit Goossens and Olivier Gimenez and Azri Sawang and Isabelle Lackman-Ancrenaz},
  title = {Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower {K}inabatangan, {S}abah, {M}alaysia},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {375-385}
}
Andersen, D. E., Rongstad, O. J. & Mytton, W. R. 1985 Line transect analysis of raptor abundance along roads Wildlife Society Bulletin 13:533--539      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85,
  author = {Andersen, D. E. and Rongstad, O. J. and Mytton, W. R.},
  title = {Line transect analysis of raptor abundance along roads},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {533--539}
}
Anderson, B. W. & Ohmart, R. D. 1981 Comparisons of avian census results using variable distance transect and variable circular plot techniques Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :186--192      
BibTeX:
@incollection{AndOhm81,
  author = {Anderson, B. W. and Ohmart, R. D.},
  title = {Comparisons of avian census results using variable distance transect and variable circular plot techniques},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {186--192}
}
Anderson, D. R. 2003 Response to Engeman: index values rarely constitute reliable information Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:288-291   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{And03,
  author = {Anderson, D R},
  title = {Response to {E}ngeman: index values rarely constitute reliable information},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {288-291},
  url = {http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~anderson/PDF_files/response.pdf}
}
Anderson, D. R. 2001 The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:1294--1297   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{AND2001,
  author = {Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1294--1297},
  url = {http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~anderson/PDF_files/Opinion.pdf}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Crain, B. R. 1985 Estimating population size and density using line transect sampling Biometrical Journal 27:723--731      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85a,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Estimating population size and density using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {723--731}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Crain, B. R. 1985 Some mathematical models for line transect sampling Biometrical Journal 27:741--752      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85b,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some mathematical models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {741--752}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Crain, B. R. 1980 Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling Biometrical Journal 22:513--524      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal80,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some comments on {A}nderson and {P}ospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {513--524}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Crain, B. R. 1979 Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods A8:487--507      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal79a,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {A8},
  pages = {487--507}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Crain, B. R. 1978 A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method Ecology 59:190--193      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal78,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {190--193}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., Lubow, B. C., Thomas, L., Corn, P. S., Medica, P. A. & Marlow, R. W. 2001 Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance Journal of Wildlife Management 65:583--597      
BibTeX:
@article{AND01,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Lubow, B. C. and Thomas, L. and Corn, P. S. and Medica,P. A. and Marlow, R. W.},
  title = {Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {583--597}
}
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., White, G. C. & Otis, D. L. 1983 Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods. Ecology 64:674--680      
Abstract: Distance sampling methodology is adapted to enable animal density (number per unit of area) to be estimated from capture-recapture and removal data. A trapping web design provides the link between capture data and distance sampling theory. Several alternative sampling and analysis methods are possible within the general framework of distance sampling theory; a few alternatives are discussed and an example is given.
BibTeX:
@article{Anderson1983,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and White, G. C. and Otis, D. L.},
  title = {Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods.},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {64},
  number = {4},
  pages = {674--680}
}
Anderson, D. R., Laake, J. L., Crain, B. R. & Burnham, K. P. 1979 Guidelines for line transect sampling of biological populations Journal of Wildlife Management 43:70--78      
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal79b,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L. and Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Guidelines for line transect sampling of biological populations},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {70--78}
}
Anderson, D. R. & Pospahala, R. S. 1970 Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects Journal of Wildlife Management 34:141--146      
Review: Este artigo é muito giro.
Todo ele é na framework de strip transect, mas curiosamente isto acaba por ser mais distance samplinhg que outra coisa. Mesmo sem o saberem, estão a modelar a função de detecção.
É interessante porque referem desde logo que a metodologia so funciona se todos os animais sobre a linha forem vsitos, um percursor de g(0) = 1.
Dão exemplos de heaping, e referem que em Gates et al. (1968) também havia.
BibTeX:
@article{AndPos70,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Pospahala, R. S.},
  title = {Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1970},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {141--146}
}
Anderson, D. R. & Southwell, C. 1995 Estimates of macropod density from line transect surveys relative to analyst expertise Journal of Wildlife Management 59:852--857      
BibTeX:
@article{AndSou95,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Southwell, C.},
  title = {Estimates of macropod density from line transect surveys relative to analyst expertise},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {852--857}
}
Andriolo, A., Martins, C., Engel, M., Pizzorno, J., Mas-Rosa, S., Freitas, A., Morete, M. & Kinas, P. 2006 The first aerial survey to estimate abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the breeding ground off Brazil (Breeding Stock A) Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:307-311     PDF  
Abstract: In the Southern Hemisphere, humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were heavily exploited from both coastal stations and in pelagic waters in all major ocean basins. About 200,000 whales were taken after 1900, causing declines of populations to small percentages of their pre-exploitation levels. The study presented here aimed to investigate humpback whale abundance in the Brazilian coastal breeding ground, in order to provide information to support further analysis of the population recovery. Between 25 August and 2 September 2001, a fixed wing, flat window, aircraft was used to survey transect lines along the northern limit of Bahia State (12°10’S), to the southern limit of Espírito Santo State (20°42’S). All on-effort sightings were recorded and abundance was estimated according to standard distance sampling methodology (Burnham et al., 1980; Buckland et al., 1993). Group sizes of humpback whales ranged between 1-5 and the mean group size was 1.52 (±0.06). The model that best fitted the perpendicular distance data, based on the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, was the hazard rate model. The population size estimated using uncorrected data was 1,493 (CV=0.21) whales. Surface time was used to correct the estimates for gˆ (0), resulting in a correction factor of 0.67 (±0.15). The corrected analysis for each block and combined result, increased the population size estimate to 2,229 (CV=0.31) individuals. The data from this study could be used to identify new areas appropriate for whalewatching, to monitor the status and dynamics of the humpback whale population off the Brazilian coast and to provide information for the establishment of new protected areas
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2006,
  author = {Andriolo, A. and Martins, C.C.A. and Engel, M.H. and Pizzorno, J.L. and Mas-Rosa, S. and Freitas, A.C. and Morete, M.E. and Kinas, P.G.},
  title = {The first aerial survey to estimate abundance of humpback whales (\textit{Megaptera novaeangliae}) in the breeding ground off {Brazil (Breeding Stock A)}},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {307-311}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., Costa, M., Laake, J. & Duarte, J. 2005 Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) (Illiger, 1815) Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 48:807--814     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2005,
  author = {Andriolo, A and Piovezan, U and Costa, MJRP and Laake, J and Duarte, JMB},
  title = {Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (\textit{Blastocerus dichotomus}) ({I}lliger, 1815)},
  journal = {Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {807--814}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., da Costa, M. J. P. & Duarte, J. M. B. 2001 Line-transect sampling method used to evaluate the impact of a flooding dam on marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) population in the Paraná River, Brazil. Deer Specialist Group News 16:1--2     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2001,
  author = {Artur Andriolo and Ubiratan Piovezan and Mateus J.R. Paranhos da Costa and José Maurício Barbanti Duarte},
  title = {Line-transect sampling method used to evaluate the impact of a flooding dam on marsh deer (\textit{Blastocerus dichotomus}) population in the Paraná River, Brazil.},
  journal = {Deer Specialist Group News},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {1--2}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., da Costa, M. J. P., Torres, H. A., Vogliotti, A., Zerbini, A. N. & Duarte, J. M. B. 2014 Severe population decline of marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae), a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant ZOOLOGIA :   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2014,
  author = {Artur Andriolo and Ubiratan Piovezan and Mateus J.R. Paranhos da Costa and Hermógenes A. Torres and Alexandre Vogliotti and Alexandre N. Zerbini and José M. B. Duarte},
  title = {Severe population decline of marsh deer, \textit{Blastocerus dichotomus} (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae), a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant},
  journal = {ZOOLOGIA},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {10.1590/S1984-46702013005000015}
}
Anganuzzi, A. A. & Buckland, S. T. 1989 Reducing bias in estimated trends from dolphin abundance indices derived from tuna vessel data Report of the International Whaling Commission 39:323--334      
BibTeX:
@article{AngBuc89,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Reducing bias in estimated trends from dolphin abundance indices derived from tuna vessel data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {323--334}
}
Anganuzzi, A. A., Buckland, S. T. & Cattanach, K. L. 1991 Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data for 1988 and 1989 Report of the International Whaling Commission 41:497--506      
BibTeX:
@article{Angetal91,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L.},
  title = {Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the {Eastern Tropical P}acific, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data for 1988 and 1989},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {497--506}
}
Anganuzzi, A. A., Catanach, K. L. & Buckland, S. T. 1992 Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in 1990 and trends since 1975, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data Report of the International Whaling Commission 42:541-547     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Anganuzzi1992,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Catanach, K. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in 1990 and trends since 1975, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {541-547}
}
Anthony, R. M. & Stehn, R. A. 1994 Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map Wildlife Society Bulletin 22:674-676      
BibTeX:
@article{AntSte94,
  author = {Anthony, R. M. and Stehn, R. A.},
  title = {Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {674-676}
}
Applegate, R. D., Jr, R. E. K., Moss, E. D., Warr, E. L. & Kennedy, M. L. 2011 Problems with Avian Point Counts for Estimating Density of Northern Bobwhite—A Case Study Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 2:117-121      
BibTeX:
@article{Applegate2011,
  author = {Roger D. Applegate and Robert E. Kissell Jr and E. Daniel Moss and Edward L. Warr and Michael L. Kennedy},
  title = {Problems with Avian Point Counts for Estimating Density of Northern Bobwhite—A Case Study},
  journal = {Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {117-121}
}
Arendt, W. J., Gibbons, D. W. & Gray, G. 1999 Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies Bird Conservation International 9:351--372      
Abstract: The Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi is endemic to the Caribbean island of Montserrat where, prior to 1995, it was widely distributed across the island's three main interior mountain ranges: the Centre, Soufriere and South Soufriere Hills. In July 1995, a long-dormant volcano on Chances Peak in the Soufriere Hills began to erupt. Since then the forest habitat of the oriole on the Soufriere and South Soufriere Hills has been devastated by pyroclastic flows and surges, heavy ash eruptions and rock falls. The Montserrat Oriole populations that inhabited these two mountain ranges have probably been lost. In December 1997, a census of the remaining Centre Hills population was undertaken to assess its status in the face of the heavy ash fall that occurred earlier the same year. To do this, a systematic grid of 140 sample points was overlaid on an area of 1,437·5 ha encompassing the Centre Hills, and a 10-minute count of all bird species was undertaken at 137 of these points during an eight-day survey period. The distance from the point to each oriole detected was measured and records of all other species were allocated to one of five distance bands radiating out from the point. Distance sampling was used to model densities, and thus to estimate population sizes, of eight bird species in the study area. It was estimated that 4,000 (95% CIs 1,500-7,800) Montserrat Orioles remain in the Centre Hills and thus the world. Although the probability of pyroclastic flows and surges overrunning the Centre Hills is considered remote, it is recommended that the Montserrat Oriole be classified as Globally Threatened (Endangered) under the revised IUCN threat categories because of its loss of breeding habitat since 1995.
BibTeX:
@article{Arendt1999,
  author = {Arendt, W. J. and Gibbons, D. W. and Gray, G.},
  title = {Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat Oriole \textit{Icterus oberi} and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {351--372}
}
Ashenafi, Z. T., Coulson, T., Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Leader-Williams, N. 2005 Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas Animal Conservation 8:113--121     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Ashenafi2005,
  author = {Ashenafi, Z. T. and Coulson, T. and Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Leader-Williams, N.},
  title = {Behaviour and ecology of the {E}thiopian wolf (\textit{{C}anis simensis}) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {113--121}
}
Atkinson, A. J., Yang, B. S., Fisher, R. N., Ervin, E., Case, T. J., Scott, N. & Shaffer, H. B. 2003 MCB Camp Pendleton Arroyo Toad monitoring protocol  :      
BibTeX:
@book{Atketal03,
  author = {Atkinson, A. J. and Yang, B. S. and Fisher, R. N. and Ervin, E. and Case, T. J. and Scott, N. and Shaffer, H. B.},
  title = {MCB Camp Pendleton Arroyo Toad monitoring protocol},
  publisher = {Western Ecological Research Center, U. S. Geological Survey},
  year = {2003}
}
Averill-Murray, R. & Averill-Murray, A. 2005 Regional-scale estimation of density and habitat use of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in Arizona Journal of Herpetology 39:65--72      
Abstract: Desert Tortoise surveys and management in the Sonoran Desert typically exclude intermountain valleys, where tortoises are generally thought to be absent. Furthermore, few regional-level surveys have been conducted because of difficulties in sampling in the complex landscape of Sonoran Desert upland habitat. We used distance-sampling to document macrohabitat use and regional density of Desert Tortoises across the 76,800-ha Ironwood Forest National Monument in Arizona. We observed 42 tortoises on transects, and distance sampling produced an estimate of 17,997 tortoises ? 150 mm carapace length (coefficient of variation = 41.5%) on the monument. Stratification by habitat type (steep topography with boulders, incised washes, or neither of these components) improved precision slightly (37.2%). Detection probability contributed least to density variance, compared to encounter rate and tortoise detectability on the transect line, indicating that assumptions of the technique were met during sampling. We found tortoises or their sign on 92% of transects in boulder habitat, on 71% that included incised washes, and on 25% in habitat with neither of these features (up to 1.7 km away from the nearest slope). Our results indicate that Desert Tortoises in the Sonoran Desert occur at low density, but are not absent, from intermountain valleys, and the maintenance of these valleys for tortoise movement between local populations may be important for long-term population viability. With this in mind, concentrating survey effort in areas with steep topography and boulders will increase tortoise encounter rate, result in better precision of regional density and trend estimates, and may also reduce survey effort.
BibTeX:
@article{Averill-Murray2005,
  author = {Averill-Murray, R.C. and Averill-Murray, A.},
  title = {Regional-scale estimation of density and habitat use of the Desert Tortoise (\textit{Gopherus agassizii}) in Arizona},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {65--72}
}
Azhar, B., Zakaria, M., Yusof, E. & Leong, P. C. 2008 Efficiency of Fixed-Width Transect and Line-Transect-based Distance Sampling to Survey Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in Peninsular Malaysia Journal of Sustainable Development 1:63--73     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Azhar2008,
  author = {Badrul Azhar and Mohamed Zakaria and Ebil Yusof and Puan Chong Leong},
  title = {Efficiency of Fixed-Width Transect and Line-Transect-based Distance Sampling to Survey Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in Peninsular Malaysia},
  journal = {Journal of Sustainable Development},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {63--73}
}
Bårdsen, B.-J. & Fox, J. 2006 Evaluation of line transect sampling for density estimates of chiru Pantholops hodgsoni in the Aru Basin, Tibet Wildlife Biology 12:89--100     PDF  
Abstract: The chiru or Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni has dramatically decreased in number over recent decades, and efficient monitoring of the density and distribution of chiru is vital to the management of this endangered species. We evaluated line transect sampling methodology, using track and cross-county transects, and assessed its conformity to underlying assumptions for use in estimating density of chiru in the ca 2,300 km2 Aru Basin, Tibet. Although violations of some assumptions were apparent, they were generally not substantial, and simple adjustments of sampling design can reduce their effects in future surveys. Sampling effort was not sufficient to demonstrate clear seasonal differences in chiru density between summer and autumn. However, cross-country transects on the west side of the study area did show a statistically significant higher autumn than summer density, and encounter rates (the number of detections per km) were significantly higher for both transect types in autumn. We tested for an expected negative bias associated with track transects, and although a clear difference in estimated density was not found, a significantly higher encounter rate was present for cross-country than for track transects. With increased sampling effort and a more effective design in future surveys, line transect sampling will be a useful methodology for assessment of chiru populations. © Wildlife Biology (2006).
BibTeX:
@article{Bardsen2006,
  author = {B{\aa}rdsen, B.-J. and Fox, J.L.},
  title = {Evaluation of line transect sampling for density estimates of chiru \textit{Pantholops hodgsoni} in the {Aru Basin}, {T}ibet},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {89--100}
}
Bächler, E. & Liechti, F. 2007 On the importance of g(0) for estimating bird population densities with standard distance-sampling: implications from a telemetry study and a literature review Ibis 149:693--700      
BibTeX:
@article{Baechler2007,
  author = {Erich B\"{a}chler and Felix Liechti},
  title = {On the importance of g(0) for estimating bird population densities with standard distance-sampling: implications from a telemetry study and a literature review},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {149},
  pages = {693--700}
}
Baccaro, F. B. & Ferraz, G. 2012 Estimating density of ant nests using distance sampling Insectes Sociaux 60:103--110   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Baccaro2012,
  author = {F. B. Baccaro and G. Ferraz},
  title = {Estimating density of ant nests using distance sampling},
  journal = {Insectes Sociaux},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {103--110},
  doi = {10.1007/s00040-012-0274-2}
}
Bagchi, S., Goyal, S. & Sankar, K. 2004 Herbivore density and biomass in a semi-arid tropical dry deciduous forest of western India Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:475--478      
BibTeX:
@article{Bagchi2004,
  author = {Bagchi, S. and Goyal, S.P. and Sankar, K.},
  title = {Herbivore density and biomass in a semi-arid tropical dry deciduous forest of western India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {4},
  pages = {475--478}
}
Baird, R. W. & Burkhart, S. M. 2000 Bias and variability in distance estimation on the water: implications for the management of whale watching  :     PDF  
Review: É interesssante como se pode ver na figura 1 o efeito de heaping a 50, 100, 150, 200,250 e 300 metros, mas de qualquer forma esse efeito nao e referido.
Tem algumas referencias sobre erros em avistamento de baleias - trabalhos do Schweder.
Referem tendencia para subestimar distancias as baleias.
BibTeX:
@techreport{Baird2000,
  author = {Baird, R. W. and Burkhart, S. M.},
  title = {Bias and variability in distance estimation on the water: implications for the management of whale watching},
  year = {2000},
  number = {SC/52/WW1}
}
Bal, P. 2010 Estimating Gopher tortoise abundance through Design-based and Model-based Methods  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Bal2010,
  author = {Payal Bal},
  title = {Estimating Gopher tortoise abundance through Design-based and Model-based Methods},
  school = {Univeristy of St Andrews},
  year = {2010}
}
Baldi, A. & Kisbenedek, T. 1999 Species-specific distribution of reed-nesting passerine birds across reed-bed edges: effects of spatial scale and edge type Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45:97--114      
BibTeX:
@article{BalKis99,
  author = {Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek, T.},
  title = {Species-specific distribution of reed-nesting passerine birds across reed-bed edges: effects of spatial scale and edge type},
  journal = {Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {97--114}
}
Baldi, R., Albon, S. D. & Elston, D. A. 2001 Guanacos and sheep: Evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia Oecologia 129:561--570      
Abstract: Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for forage plants. Our aim in this work was to estimate guanaco abundance and account for its variation across nine different sites, two seasons and two years. We conducted over 100 ground surveys of both guanacos and sheep and estimated the availability of the preferred plant species both animal species might select in their diet. We found that (1) sheep densities were up to 23 times higher than guanaco densities in sympatric conditions, (2) at a protected site without sheep, guanaco density was one order of magnitude higher than at the rest of the sites, (3) across nine different sites, sheep densities alone accounted for around 60% of the variation in guanaco abundance, (4) guanaco densities were negatively related to both total plant cover and availability of the preferred plant species in their diet, which were both positively associated with sheep density, and (5) within-site changes in guanaco densities between seasons and years were negatively related to changes in sheep densities. Our results are consistent with predictions on interspecific competition for food resources, although we cannot rule out possible effects of other human-related activities influencing guanaco abundance. We conclude that sheep compete with guanacos for forage in arid Patagonia.
BibTeX:
@article{Baldi2001,
  author = {Baldi, R. and Albon, S. D. and Elston, D. A.},
  title = {Guanacos and sheep: Evidence for continuing competition in arid {P}atagonia},
  journal = {Oecologia},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {129},
  pages = {561--570}
}
Ball, S., Ramsey, D., Nugent, G., Warburton, B. & Efford, M. 2005 A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: Insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) Wildlife Research 32:217--227      
Abstract: Using field data from brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), we present a method for modelling wildlife detection probabilities. Whereas detection functions typically (e.g. for distance sampling) describe the probability of direct human observations of animal subjects, we adapted this approach for cryptic species where observation depends on animals being caught in traps. Specifically, we characterised the probability of individual brushtail possums being caught by leg-hold traps in an area of farmland and native forest in New Zealand. Detection probability was defined as the per-individual, per-trap, per-night probability of a possum being captured, and was modelled as a function of home-range utilisation. Radio-telemetry was used to define the home-range distributions of 18 possums, and a combination of scanning radio-receivers and movement-activated video-cameras recorded instances when radio-collared possums encountered and stepped on the trigger of leg-hold traps (inactivated by being wired open). We estimated a 5% chance of trapping individual possums with a single leg-hold trap located in the centre of their home range for one night (median value across possums). Furthermore, this probability decreased rapidly as a function of distance, so that at 120 m from the centre of the home range there was less than a 1% chance of trapping success per possum per night. The techniques developed in this study could be applied to a wide variety of species and sampling methods. © CSIRO 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Ball2005,
  author = {Ball, S.J. and Ramsey, D. and Nugent, G. and Warburton, B. and Efford, M.},
  title = {A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: Insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum \textit{(Trichosurus vulpecula)}},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {32},
  number = {3},
  pages = {217--227}
}
Ballance, L. T. & Pitman, R. L. 1998 Cetaceans of the western tropical Indian Ocean: Distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems Marine Mammal Science 14:429--459      
BibTeX:
@article{BalPit98,
  author = {Ballance, L. T. and Pitman, R. L.},
  title = {Cetaceans of the western tropical {I}ndian {O}cean: Distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {429--459}
}
Balph, M. H., Stoddart, S. L. & H., B. D. 1977 A simple technique for analyzing bird transect counts The Auk 94:606--607      
BibTeX:
@article{Baletal77,
  author = {Balph, M. H. and Stoddart, S. L. and Balph D. H.},
  title = {A simple technique for analyzing bird transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {606--607}
}
Barabesi, L. 2000 Local likelihood density estimation in line transect sampling Environmetrics 11:413--422      
Abstract: A novel semiparametric estimator for the probability density function of detected distances in line transect sampling is proposed. The estimator is obtained using a local likelihood density estimation approach, a technique recently proposed which affords the advantages of both parametric and nonparametric methods, i.e. accuracy and robustness. Moreover, a procedure for the selection of the local likelihood bandwidth is obtained. The performance of the proposed estimator with respect to some existing nonparametric and semiparametric estimators is assessed by means of a Monte Carlo study. Finally, a real data set is analyzed. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2000,
  author = {Barabesi, L.},
  title = {Local likelihood density estimation in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {11},
  number = {4},
  pages = {413--422}
}
Barabesi, L. & Fattorini, L. 2012 Random versus stratified location of transects or points in distance sampling: theoretical results and practical considerations Environmental and Ecological Statistics :   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2012,
  author = {Lucio Barabesi and Lorenzo Fattorini},
  title = {Random versus stratified location of transects or points in distance sampling: theoretical results and practical considerations},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2012},
  doi = {10.1007/s10651-012-0216-1}
}
Barabesi, L. & Fattorini, L. 1998 The use of replicated plot, line and point sampling for estimating species abundance and ecological diversity Environmental and Ecological Statistics 5:353--370      
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat98,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {The use of replicated plot, line and point sampling for estimating species abundance and ecological diversity},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {353--370}
}
Barabesi, L. & Fattorini, L. 1994 A note on bandwidth selections for kernel density estimators at endpoints Metron 52:43--56      
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat94,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {A note on bandwidth selections for kernel density estimators at endpoints},
  journal = {Metron},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {43--56}
}
Barabesi, L. & Fattorini, L. 1993 Asymptotic properties of orthogonal series density estimators in line transect sampling with grouped data Metron 51:59--81      
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat93,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {Asymptotic properties of orthogonal series density estimators in line transect sampling with grouped data},
  journal = {Metron},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {59--81}
}
Barabesi, L., Greco, L. & Naddeo, S. 2002 Density estimation in line transect sampling with grouped data by local least squares Environmetrics 13:167--176   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2002,
  author = {Barabesi, Lucio and Greco, Luigi and Naddeo, Stefania},
  title = {Density estimation in line transect sampling with grouped data by local least squares},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {167--176},
  doi = {10.1002/env.524}
}
Barbraud, C. & Thiebot, J.-B. 2009 On the importance of estimating detection probabilities from at-sea surveys of flying seabirds Journal of Avian Biology 40:1--7   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Barbraud2009,
  author = {Christophe Barbraud and Jean-Baptiste Thiebot},
  title = {On the importance of estimating detection probabilities from at-sea surveys of flying seabirds},
  journal = {Journal of Avian Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1600-048X.2009.04653.x}
}
Barlow, J. 1999 Trackline detection probability for long-diving whales Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :209--221      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bar99,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Trackline detection probability for long-diving whales},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {209--221}
}
Barlow, J. 2006 Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002 Marine Mammal Science 22:446--464     PDF  
Abstract: Cetacean abundance is estimated for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the Hawaiian Islands based on a ship line-transect survey from August to November, 2002. Sighting detection functions are estimated from this and other NOAA research surveys from 1986 to 2002 using a new, multiple-covariate approach. Twenty-four species were seen on this survey, including two species (Fraser's dolphin [Lagenodelphis hosei] and sei whale [Balaenoptera borealis]) that had not been previously documented to occur in Hawaiian waters. The most abundant large whales are sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni). The most abundant delphinids are pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Fraser's dolphins, spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Dwarf and pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are also estimated to be quite abundant. Some of the migratory baleen whales (fin whales [Balaenoptera physalus], sei whales, minke whales [B. acutorostrata], and humpback whales [Megaptera novaeangliae]) were seen only late in the survey. Abundance is estimated for 19 cetacean species. The overall density of cetaceans is low in the study area, especially for delphinids. The precision of density and abundance estimates is generally low for all species because of the low number of sightings. © 2006 the Society for Marine Mammalogy.
BibTeX:
@article{Bar06,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22},
  number = {2},
  pages = {446--464}
}
Barlow, J. 2003 Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters during summer/fall of 2002  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barlow2003,
  author = {Jay Barlow},
  title = {Cetacean abundance in {H}awaiian waters during summer/fall of 2002},
  year = {2003},
  number = {LJ-03-13}
}
Barlow, J. 1997 Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bar97,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off {C}alifornia, {O}regon, and {W}ashington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes},
  year = {1997},
  number = {LJ-97-11}
}
Barlow, J. 1994 Abundance of large whales in California coastal waters: a comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991 Report of the International Whaling Commission 44:399--406      
BibTeX:
@article{Bar94,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance of large whales in {C}alifornia coastal waters: a comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {399--406}
}
Barlow, J. 1988 Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: I. Ship surveys Fishery Bulletin 86:417--431      
BibTeX:
@article{Bar88,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise, \textit{Phocoena phocoena}, abundance estimation for {C}alifornia, {O}regon and {W}ashington: I. Ship surveys},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {86},
  pages = {417--431}
}
Barlow, J., Ferguson, M. C., Perrin, W. F., Ballance, L., Gerrodette, T., Joyce, G., Macleod, C. D., Mullin, K., Palka, D. L. & Waring, G. 2006 Abundance and densities of beaked and bottlenose whales (family Ziphiidae) Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7:263--270     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2006,
  author = {Jay Barlow and Megan C. Ferguson and William F. Perrin and Lisa Ballance and Tim Gerrodette and Gerald Joyce and Colin D. Macleod and Keith Mullin and Debra L. Palka and Gordon Waring},
  title = {Abundance and densities of beaked and bottlenose whales (family {Z}iphiidae)},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {263--270}
}
Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T. & Forcada, J. 2001 Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3:201-212     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{baretal2001,
  author = {Barlow, J and Gerrodette, T and Forcada, J},
  title = {Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {201-212}
}
Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T. & Silber, G. 1997 First estimates of vaquita abundance Marine Mammal Science 13:44--58     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal97,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Gerrodette, T. and Silber, G.},
  title = {First estimates of vaquita abundance},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {44--58}
}
Barlow, J., Oliver, C. W., Jackson, T. D. & Taylor, B. L. 1988 Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: II. aerial surveys Fishery Bulletin 86:433--444      
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal88,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Oliver, C. W. and Jackson, T. D. and Taylor, B. L.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise, \textit{Phocoena phocoena}, abundance estimation for {C}alifornia, {O}regon and {W}ashington: II. aerial surveys},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {86},
  pages = {433--444}
}
Barlow, J. & Taylor, B. 2005 Estimates of sperm whale abundance in the northeastern temperate Pacific from a combined acoustic and visual survey Marine Mammal Science 21:429--445     PDF  
Review: Of all cetaceans, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are most amenable to acoustic detection and survey methods.

Sperm whale sounds have been classified as (Weilgart and Whitehead 1988):

‘‘usual’’ clicks (0.4–1.0-s period):The usual clicks are relatively loud (180–223 dB re: 1 lP @ 1 m) , and previous studies have shown these sounds to be detectable at 10–16 km under optimal conditions

slow clicks (5–8-s period): The slow clicks are thought to be produced only by males and are predicted to propagate up to 60 km

codas (patterned clicks) and creaks (a series of very rapid clicks): Codas and creaks, which are of lesser amplitude, are not detectable far from their source.

The frequency distribution of clicks (<100 Hz to 30 kHz,) extends above the dominant range of ship and flow noise, making these sounds easier to detect with a towed array system than the lower frequency sounds of baleen whales.

Sperm whale clicks have a rapid rise time (<1 ms) which improves the precision of localization methods based on time-of-arrival difference between two hydrophones. A significant fraction of sperm whales are unavailable to visual observers (Kasamatsu and Joyce 1995, Barlow and Sexton 1996) because they can dive for an hour or more (Leatherwood et al. 1982); therefore, acoustic surveys are potentially more valuable for sperm whales than for many other species.

MUITO INTERESSANTE (measurement error related):Our bearings represent conical bearing angles, and perpendicular distance estimated by these methods is the distance in three dimensions from the path traced by the towed array. Line-transect methods are based on two-dimensional distances from the trackline, measured at the surface. From the perspective of estimating linetransect density, acoustic perpendicular distances are biased and would be greater than the perpendicular distance at the surface unless the sperm whales were vocalizing at the exact depth of the array. Because sperm whales dive to great depths, this bias may not be trivial. Unfortunately, the bias cannot be corrected without knowing the depth of the vocalizing animals. We explored the likely magnitude of this bias by assuming that vocalizing sperm whales were at 600 m depth (slightly greater than the mean dive depth of 500 m reported by Whitehead (2003) and 500 m below the depth of the array) and by using the Pythagorean formula to estimate perpendicular distance at the surface from the acoustically estimated perpendicular distance.

It is said later in the results that: Effective strip widths were also estimated with revised perpendicular distances based on an assumed whale depth of 500 m below the hydrophone array. For comparability, models were constrained to the half-normal key function. These effective strip widths differed from those given in Table 1 by less than one percent. For typical sperm whale acoustic detection distances, the effect of whale depth appears to have a trivial effect on density and abundance estimation. THIS IS BECAUSE THE WHALES ARE SO FAR AWAY (ON AVERAGE) FROM THE SHIP THAT THE PERPENDICULAR OR RECORDED DISTANCE ARE PRETTY MUCH THE SAME

Overall population size from visual detections was estimated as an average of the Beaufort-stratified estimates, weighted by the inverse of their variances. NOTE THIS IS ONLY SENSIBLE IF DENSITY IS INDEPENDENT OF SEA STATE

BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2005,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Taylor, B.L.},
  title = {Estimates of sperm whale abundance in the northeastern temperate {P}acific from a combined acoustic and visual survey},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {429--445}
}
Barlow, J. & Taylor, B. 2001 Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington, and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barlow2001,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Taylor, B.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington, and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys},
  year = {2001},
  number = {LJ-01-03}
}
Barnes, A., Hill, G. J. E. & Wilson, G. R. 1986 Correcting for incomplete sighting in aerial surveys of kangaroos Australian Wildlife Research 13:339--348      
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal86,
  author = {Barnes, A. and Hill, G. J. E. and Wilson, G. R.},
  title = {Correcting for incomplete sighting in aerial surveys of kangaroos},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {339--348}
}
Barnes, R. F. W. 2001 How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers? African Journal of Ecology 39:1--9      
BibTeX:
@article{Bar01,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W.},
  title = {How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers?},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {1--9}
}
Barnes, R. F. W. & Barnes, K. L. 1992 Estimating decay rates of elephant dung-piles in forest African Journal of Ecology 30:316--321      
BibTeX:
@article{BarBar92,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Barnes, K. L.},
  title = {Estimating decay rates of elephant dung-piles in forest},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {316--321}
}
Barnes, R. F. W., Blom, A., Alers, M. P. T. & Barnes, K. L. 1995 An estimate of the numbers of forest elephants in Gabon Journal of Tropical Ecology 11:27--37      
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal95,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Blom, A. and Alers, M. P. T. and Barnes, K. L.},
  title = {An estimate of the numbers of forest elephants in {G}abon},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {27--37}
}
Barnes, R. F. W. & Dunn, A. 2002 Estimating forest elephant density in Sapo National Park (Liberia) with a rainfall model African Journal of Ecology 40:159--163      
BibTeX:
@article{BarDun02,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Dunn, A.},
  title = {Estimating forest elephant density in {S}apo {N}ational {P}ark (Liberia) with a rainfall model},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {159--163}
}
Barraclough, R. K. 2000 Distance Sampling: A discussion document produced for the Department of Conservation  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barraclough2000,
  author = {Barraclough, R. K.},
  title = {Distance Sampling: A discussion document produced for the Department of Conservation},
  year = {2000},
  number = {175}
}
Barrio, I., Acevedo, P. & Tortosa, F. 2010 Assessment of methods for estimating wild rabbit population abundance in agricultural landscapes European Journal of Wildlife Research 56:335-340   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10344-009-0327-7,
  author = {Barrio, Isabel and Acevedo, Pelayo and Tortosa, Francisco},
  title = {Assessment of methods for estimating wild rabbit population abundance in agricultural landscapes},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {335-340},
  note = {10.1007/s10344-009-0327-7},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10344-009-0327-7}
}
Barry, S. C. & Welsh, A. H. 2001 Distance sampling methodology Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B: Statistical Methodology 63:31--53      
Abstract: We consider the method of distance sampling described by Buckland, Anderson, Burnham and Laake in 1993. We explore the properties of the methodology in simple cases chosen to allow direct and accessible comparisons of distance sampling in the design-and model-based frameworks. In particular, we obtain expressions for the bias and variance of the distance sampling estimator of object density and for the expected value of the recommended analytic variance estimator within each framework. These results enable us to clarify aspects of the performance of the methodology which may be of interest to users and potential users of distance sampling.
BibTeX:
@article{Barry2001,
  author = {Barry, S. C. and Welsh, A. H.},
  title = {Distance sampling methodology},
  journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B: Statistical Methodology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {31--53}
}
Bart, J., Droege, S., Geissler, P., Peterjohn, B. & Ralph, C. J. 2004 Density estimation in wildlife surveys Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:1242--1247   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal04,
  author = {Bart, J and Droege, S and Geissler, P and Peterjohn, B and Ralph, C J},
  title = {Density estimation in wildlife surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {1242--1247},
  url = {http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/ralph/psw_2005_ralph(bart)001.pdf}
}
Bart, J. & Herrick, J. 1984 Diurnal timing of bird surveys The Auk 101:384--387      
BibTeX:
@article{BarHer84,
  author = {Bart, J. and Herrick, J.},
  title = {Diurnal timing of bird surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {384--387}
}
Bart, J. & Schoultz, J. D. 1984 Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density The Auk 101:307--318     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{BarSch84,
  author = {Bart, J. and Schoultz, J. D.},
  title = {Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {307--318}
}
Batcheler, C. L. 1975 Development of a distance method for deer census from pellet groups Journal of Wildlife Management 39:641--652      
BibTeX:
@article{Bat75,
  author = {Batcheler, C. L.},
  title = {Development of a distance method for deer census from pellet groups},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {641--652}
}
Beare, D., Reid, D. & Petitgas, P. 2002 Spatio-temporal patterns in herring (Clupea harengus L.) school abundance and size in the northwest North Sea: Modelling space-time dependencies to allow examination of the impact of local school abundance on school size ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:469--479      
Abstract: As part of the EU-funded project "CLUSTER" a database was constructed of herring schools identified during a series of acoustic surveys in the northwest North Sea. Among other descriptors, the database included each schools' height, length, and acoustic backscattering energy (Sa). The number of schools per nautical mile. EDSU (Elementary Distance Sampling Unit) was also recorded. The relationships between local school count and school backscattering energy to time-of-day and location were first modelled using multiple regression techniques. The results indicate a considerable degree of non-linear dependency on both time-of-day and location. Herring-school counts per EDSU tended to be high during the middle part of the day and lower at dawn and dusk and were higher along the continental shelf edge about 130 m west of Orkney and Shetland. The regression models, by definition, also allow variability due to each explanatory variable to be assayed and divided. This feature meant that their output could be used to explore further into the relationships among the schools. In this paper the residual variability from the regression models is used to describe density-dependent relationships among herring schools, i.e. we asked "To what extent does local herring school abundance influence the size (backscattering energy) of a given school?" It is concluded that herring school size is regulated mainly by location and time-of-day and that &quot;measured&quot; school size is not influenced by the local "school count per EDSU". The results and their implications are discussed. © 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Beare2002,
  author = {Beare, D.J. and Reid, D.G. and Petitgas, P.},
  title = {Spatio-temporal patterns in herring \textit{(Clupea harengus L.)} school abundance and size in the northwest North Sea: Modelling space-time dependencies to allow examination of the impact of local school abundance on school size},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {59},
  number = {3},
  pages = {469--479}
}
Beasom, S. L., H. J. C. & Cain, J. R. 1981 The effect of strip width on helicopter censusing of deer Journal of Range Management 34:36--37      
BibTeX:
@article{Beaetal81,
  author = {Beasom, S. L., Hood, J. C. and Cain, J. R.},
  title = {The effect of strip width on helicopter censusing of deer},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {36--37}
}
Beavers, S. C. & Ramsey, F. L. 1998 Detectability analysis in transect surveys Journal of Wildlife Management 62:948--957      
Review: Tenho um workspace com coisas para implementar esta abordagem - ver pasta amarela Fancy's stuff
BibTeX:
@article{BeaRam98,
  author = {Beavers, S. C. and Ramsey, F. L.},
  title = {Detectability analysis in transect surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {948--957}
}
Becker, B. H., Beissinger, S. R. & Carter, H. R. 1997 At-sea density monitoring of marbled murrelets in central California: Methodological considerations Condor 99:743--755     PDF  
Abstract: We conducted at-sea line transect surveys for Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) to determine density off the coast of central California and to explore the utility of various survey protocols. Surveys were designed to compare line versus strip transect methods, and reveal the effects of distance from shore, viewing conditions and seasonal trends on density estimates. On consecutive days, we conducted 12 paired (24 total) at-sea line and strip transect surveys that were 20 km long at 400 m and 800 m from shore. We also performed nine surveys that were 10 km long and at distances of 400 m. 900 m, 1.400 m, 2,400 m, 3,400 m and 4.400 m from shore. Density estimates calculated using line transects were significantly greater than estimates based on strip transects of 100 m and 200 m widths. Marbled Murrelet density ranged from 2.4-39.4 birds km-2 at 400 m from shore, and from 0.0-16.5 birds km-2 at 800 m from shore. Density was higher on the 400 m than on the 800 m survey on 22 of 24 survey days. Densities measured on consecutive days were highly correlated on the 400 m transect but not on the 800 m transect. Line transect densities on the 400 m transect were higher when conducted under better viewing conditions. Line transects had higher statistical power to detect trends than strip transects. Statistical power analyses indicated only a 24% chance of detecting a population declining by 5% per year over 5 years when surveying line transects 20 km in length five times a year. Power to detect a 5% annual change increased to 57% when surveying line transects five times per year over 10 years. Survey design should strive to minimize variability in bird density in order to maximize likelihood of detecting population trends. An increase in the number of surveys per breeding season, length of a transect, or duration of monitoring effort should increase power to detect trends in murrelet density. We suggest that at-sea surveys should focus on detecting trends in density rather than population size.
BibTeX:
@article{Becker1997,
  author = {Becker, B. H. and Beissinger, S. R. and Carter, H. R.},
  title = {At-sea density monitoring of marbled murrelets in central California: Methodological considerations},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {99},
  number = {3},
  pages = {743--755}
}
Becker, E. F. & Quang, P. X. 2009 A gamma-shaped detection function for line-transect surveys with mark-recapture and covariate data Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 14:207-223      
BibTeX:
@article{Becker,
  author = {E. F. Becker and P. X. Quang},
  title = {A gamma-shaped detection function for line-transect surveys with mark-recapture and covariate data},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {207-223}
}
Bell, H. L. & Ferrier, S. 1985 The reliability of estimates of density from transect counts Corella 9:3--13      
BibTeX:
@article{BelFer85,
  author = {Bell, H. L. and Ferrier, S.},
  title = {The reliability of estimates of density from transect counts},
  journal = {Corella},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {3--13}
}
Bellan, S. E., Gimenez, O., Choquet, R. & Getz, W. M. 2013 A hierarchical distance sampling approach to estimating mortality rates from opportunistic carcass surveillance data Methods in Ecology and Evolution :   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Bellan2013,
  author = {Bellan, Steve E. and Gimenez, Olivier and Choquet, Rémi and Getz, Wayne M.},
  title = {A hierarchical distance sampling approach to estimating mortality rates from opportunistic carcass surveillance data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12021},
  doi = {10.1111/2041-210x.12021}
}
Bengtson, J. L., Blix, A. S., Boyd, I. L., Cameron, M. F., Hanson, M. B. & Laake, J. L. 1995 Antarctic pack-ice seal research, February and March 1995 Antarctic Journal 30:191--193      
BibTeX:
@article{Benetal95,
  author = {Bengtson, J. L. and Blix, A. S. and Boyd, I. L. and Cameron, M. F. and Hanson, M. B. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Antarctic pack-ice seal research, {F}ebruary and {M}arch 1995},
  journal = {Antarctic Journal},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {191--193}
}
Bergstedt, R. A. & Anderson, D. R. 1990 Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:86--91      
BibTeX:
@article{Ber90,
  author = {Bergstedt, R. A. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video},
  journal = {Transactions of the American Fisheries Society},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {86--91}
}
Berrow, S., O’brien, J., O’Connor, I. & Mcgrath, D. 2009 Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate Special Area of Conservation Biology & Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 109:35-46     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Berrow2009,
  author = {Simon Berrow and Joanne O’brien and Ian O’Connor and David Mcgrath},
  title = {Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise \textit{Phocoena phocoena} in the Blasket Islands candidate Special Area of Conservation},
  journal = {Biology \& Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {35-46}
}
Berrow, S., O’brien, J., O’Connor, I. & Mcgrath, D. 2007 Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate Special Area of Conservation  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Berrow2007,
  author = {Simon Berrow and Joanne O’brien and Ian O’Connor and David Mcgrath},
  title = {Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise \textit{Phocoena phocoena} in the Blasket Islands candidate Special Area of Conservation},
  year = {2007}
}
Best, L. B. 1981 Seasonal changes in detection of individual bird species Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies in Avian Biology No. 6 :252--261      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bes81,
  author = {Best, L. B.},
  title = {Seasonal changes in detection of individual bird species},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {252--261}
}
Best, P. B. & Butterworth, D. S. 1980 Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1978/79 Report of the International Whaling Commission 30:257--283      
BibTeX:
@article{BesBut80,
  author = {Best, P. B. and Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {Report of the {S}outhern {H}emisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1978/79},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {257--283}
}
Bibby, C., Jones, M. & Marsden, S. 1998 Expedition Field Techniques - Bird Surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@book{Bibby1998,
  author = {Colin Bibby and Martin Jones and Stuart Marsden},
  title = {Expedition Field Techniques - Bird Surveys},
  publisher = {Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society},
  year = {1998}
}
Bibby, C. J. & Buckland, S. T. 1987 Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat Acta Ecologica 8:103--112      
BibTeX:
@article{Bibbuc87,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat},
  journal = {Acta Ecologica},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {103--112}
}
Bibby, C. J., Burgess, N. D. & Hill, D. A. 1992 Bird Census Techniques  :      
BibTeX:
@book{Bibetal92,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Burgess, N. D. and Hill, D. A.},
  title = {Bird Census Techniques},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {1992}
}
Bibby, C. J., Burgess, N. D., Hill, D. A. & Mustoe, S. 2000 Bird Census Techniques, 2nd Ed.  :      
BibTeX:
@book{Bibetal00,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Burgess, N. D. and Hill, D. A. and Mustoe, S.},
  title = {Bird Census Techniques, 2nd Ed.},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {2000}
}
Bibby, C. J., Phillips, B. N. & Seddon, A. J. E. 1985 Birds of restocked conifer plantations in Wales Journal of Applied Ecology 22:619--633      
BibTeX:
@article{Bibetal85,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Phillips, B. N. and Seddon, A. J. E.},
  title = {Birds of restocked conifer plantations in {W}ales},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {619--633}
}
Bispo, R. 2012 Estimating wildlife mortality at wind farms: accounting for carcass removal, imperfect detection and partial coverage  :      
BibTeX:
@thesis{Bispo2012,
  author = {Bispo, R.},
  title = {Estimating wildlife mortality at wind farms: accounting for carcass removal, imperfect detection and partial coverage},
  school = {Faculdade de Ciências. Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional},
  year = {2012}
}
Biswas, S. & Sankar, K. 2002 Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India Journal of Zoology 256:411--420     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Biswas2002,
  author = {Biswas, S. and Sankar, K.},
  title = {Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (\textit{Panthera tigris tigris}) in {Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India}},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {256},
  pages = {411--420}
}
Blake, J. G., Hanowski, J. M., Niemi, G. J. & Collins, P. T. 1994 Annual variation in bird populations of mixed-conifer northern hardwood forests Condor 96:381--399      
BibTeX:
@article{Blaetal94,
  author = {Blake, J. G. and Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Collins, P. T.},
  title = {Annual variation in bird populations of mixed-conifer northern hardwood forests},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {381--399}
}
Blake, J. G., Hanowski, J. M., Niemi, G. J. & Collins, P. T. 1991 Hourly variation in transect counts of birds Ornis Fennica 68:139--147      
BibTeX:
@article{Blaetal91,
  author = {Blake, J. G. and Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Collins, P. T.},
  title = {Hourly variation in transect counts of birds},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {139--147}
}
Blaylock, R. A. 1993 Distribution and Abundance of the Cownose Ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, in Lower Chesapeake Bay Estuaries 16:255--263     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Blaylock1993,
  author = {Robert A. Blaylock},
  title = {Distribution and Abundance of the {Cownose Ray, \textit{Rhinoptera bonasus}, in Lower Chesapeake Bay}},
  journal = {Estuaries},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {255--263}
}
Blom, A., Almaši, A., Heitkönig, I., Kpanou, J.-B. & Prins, H. 2001 A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density African Journal of Ecology 39:98--105      
Abstract: A survey of apes was carried out between October 1996 and May 1997 in the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (CAR), to estimate gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) densities. The density estimates were based on nest counts. The strip transect census and the line transect survey method (Standing Crop Nest Count) were used to estimate the gorilla nest group density. The strip transect has been most commonly used to date. It assumes that all nest groups within the width of the strip are detected, but as this assumption is easily violated in the dense tropical rain forest, the line transect survey was also used. In this method, only the nest groups on the transect line itself should be detected. This method proved to be an adequate and easy technique for estimating animal densities in dense vegetation. The gorilla density of 1.6 individuals km-2 (line transect survey method) found for the Dzanga sector is one of the highest densities ever reported in the literature for the Western lowland gorilla. The density estimate for chimpanzees was 0.16 individuals km-2 (census method). The results of this study confirm the importance of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park for primate conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Blom2001,
  author = {Blom, A. and Alma\v{s}i, A. and Heitk\"{o}nig, I.M.A. and Kpanou, J.-B. and Prins, H.H.T.},
  title = {A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (\textit{Gorilla gorilla gorilla}) and chimpanzee (\textit{Pan troglodytes}) nest group density},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {98--105}
}
Boano, G. & Toffoli, R. 2002 A line transect survey of wintering raptors in the western Po plain of northern Italy Journal Of Raptor Research 36:128-135      
BibTeX:
@article{Boano2002,
  author = {Boano, G. and Toffoli, R.},
  title = {A line transect survey of wintering raptors in the western {Po plain of northern Italy}},
  journal = {Journal Of Raptor Research},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {128-135}
}
Bodkin, J. L. & Udevitz, M. S. 1999 An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :115--126      
BibTeX:
@incollection{BodUde99,
  author = {Bodkin, J. L. and Udevitz, M. S.},
  title = {An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {115--126}
}
de Boer, M. 2010 Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408:265--274      
BibTeX:
@article{Boer2010,
  author = {M.N. de Boer},
  title = {Spring distribution and density of minke whale \textit{Balaenoptera acutorostrata} along an offshore bank in the central {North Sea}.},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {408},
  pages = {265--274}
}
Boer, M. N. & Simmonds, M. P. 2003 Small cetaceans along the coasts of Wales and Southwest England  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Boer2003,
  author = {Boer, M. N. and Simmonds, M. P.},
  title = {Small cetaceans along the coasts of Wales and Southwest England},
  year = {2003}
}
Bollinger, E. K., Gavin, T. A. & McIntyre, D. C. 1988 Comparison of transects and circular-plots for estimating bobolink densities Journal of Wildlife Management 52:777--786      
BibTeX:
@article{Boletal88,
  author = {Bollinger, E. K. and Gavin, T. A. and McIntyre, D. C.},
  title = {Comparison of transects and circular-plots for estimating bobolink densities},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {777--786}
}
Bonnell, M. L. & Ford, R. G. 1987 California sea lion distribution: a statistical analysis of aerial transect data Journal of Wildlife Management 51:13--20      
BibTeX:
@article{BonFor87,
  author = {Bonnell, M. L. and Ford, R. G.},
  title = {California sea lion distribution: a statistical analysis of aerial transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {13--20}
}
Booth, C. 2010 Variation in habitat preference and distribution of harbour porpoises west of Scotland  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Booth2010,
  author = {Booth, C.},
  title = {Variation in habitat preference and distribution of harbour porpoises west of Scotland},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2010}
}
Booth, C. G., Embling, C., Gordon, J., Calderan, S. V. & Hammond, P. S. 2013 Habitat preferences and distribution of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena west of Scotland Marine Ecology Progress Series 478:273-285      
BibTeX:
@article{Booth2013,
  author = {Booth, C G and Embling, C and Gordon, J and Calderan, S V and Hammond, P S},
  title = {Habitat preferences and distribution of the harbour porpoise \textit{Phocoena phocoena} west of Scotland},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {478},
  pages = {273-285}
}
Borchers, D. L. 1999 Composite mark-recapture line transect surveys Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :115--126      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bor99,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Composite mark-recapture line transect surveys},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {115--126}
}
Borchers, D. L. 1996 Line transect estimation with uncertain detection on the trackline  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Borchers96,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimation with uncertain detection on the trackline},
  school = {University of Cape Town},
  year = {1996}
}
Borchers, D. L. 1994 Methods of estimating mean school size from IWC sightings survey data Report of the International Whaling Commission 44:429--437      
BibTeX:
@article{Bor94,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Methods of estimating mean school size from {IWC} sightings survey data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {429--437}
}
Borchers, D. L., Buckland, S. T., Goedhart, P. W., Clarke, E. D. & Hedley, S. L. 1998 Horvitz-Thompson estimators for double-platform line transect surveys Biometrics 54:1221--1237      
BibTeX:
@article{BOR98,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Goedhart, P. W. and Clarke, E. D. and Hedley,S. L.},
  title = {Horvitz-{T}hompson estimators for double-platform line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1221--1237}
}
Borchers, D. L., Buckland, S. T. & Zucchini, W. 2002 Estimating Animal Abundance  :      
BibTeX:
@book{BOR02,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Zucchini, W.},
  title = {Estimating Animal Abundance},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2002}
}
Borchers, D. L. & Burnham, K. P. 2004 General formulation for distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling :307-392      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Burnham2004a,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {General formulation for distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {307-392}
}
Borchers, D. L. & Burt, M. L. 2002 Generalized regression methods for estimating school size from line transect data  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{BorBur02,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Burt, M. L.},
  title = {Generalized regression methods for estimating school size from line transect data},
  year = {2002},
  number = {Paper SC/54/IA23}
}
Borchers, D. L., Laake, J. L., Southwell, C. & Paxton, C. G. M. 2006 Accommodating unmodeled heterogeneity in double-observer distance sampling surveys Biometrics 62:372--378     PDF  
Abstract: Mark-recapture models applied to double-observer distance sampling data neglect the information on relative detectability of objects contained in the distribution of observed distances. A difference between the observed distribution and that predicted by the mark-recapture model is symptomatic of a failure of the assumption of zero correlation between detection probabilities implicit in the mark-recapture model. We develop a mark-recapture-based model that uses the observed distribution to relax this assumption to zero correlation at only one distance. We demonstrate its usefulness in coping with unmodeled heterogeneity using data from an aerial survey of crabeater seals in the Antarctic. © 2005, The International Biometric Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2006,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Laake, J. L. and Southwell, C. and Paxton, C. G. M.},
  title = {Accommodating unmodeled heterogeneity in double-observer distance sampling surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {372--378}
}
Borchers, D. L., Marques, T. A., Gunnlaugsson, T. & Jupp, P. E. 2010 Estimating distance sampling detection functions when distances are measured with errors Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 15:346-361   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2010,
  author = {D. L. Borchers and T. A. Marques and Th. Gunnlaugsson and P. E. Jupp},
  title = {Estimating distance sampling detection functions when distances are measured with errors},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {346-361},
  doi = {10.1007/s13253-010-0021-y}
}
Borchers, D. L., Pike, D., Gunnlaugsson, T. & Vikingsson, G. A. 2009 Minke whale abundance estimation from the NASS 1987 and 2001 aerial cue–counting surveys taking appropriate account of distance estimation errors NAMMCO Scientific Publications 7:95--110      
BibTeX:
@article{BorSub1,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Pike, D. and Gunnlaugsson, T. and Vikingsson, G. A.},
  title = {Minke whale abundance estimation from the {NASS} 1987 and 2001 aerial cue–counting surveys taking appropriate account of distance estimation errors},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {95--110}
}
Borchers, D. L., Stevenson, B., Kidney, D., Thomas, L. & Marques, T. 2014 A unifying model for capture-recapture and distance sampling Journal of the American Statistical Association :   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2014,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Stevenson, B.C. and Kidney, D. and Thomas, L. and Marques, T.A.},
  title = {A unifying model for capture-recapture and distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {10.1080/01621459.2014.893884}
}
Borchers, D. L., Zucchini, W. & Fewster, R. 1998 Mark-recapture models for line transect surveys Biometrics 54:1207--1220      
BibTeX:
@article{BOR98b,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Zucchini, W. and Fewster,R.},
  title = {Mark-recapture models for line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1207--1220}
}
Borchers, D. L., Zucchini, W., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Cañadas, A. & Langrock, R. 2013 Using hidden markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys Biometrics :   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2013,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Zucchini, W. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Cañadas, A. and Langrock, R.},
  title = {Using hidden markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.12049},
  doi = {10.1111/biom.12049}
}
Borgoni, R. & Quatto, P. 2012 Uniformly most powerful unbiased test for shoulder condition in point transect sampling Statistical Papers 53:1035-1044   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Borgoni2012,
  author = {Borgoni, Riccardo and Quatto, Piero},
  title = {Uniformly most powerful unbiased test for shoulder condition in point transect sampling},
  journal = {Statistical Papers},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {53},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1035-1044},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00362-011-0406-1},
  doi = {10.1007/s00362-011-0406-1}
}
Borkin, K. M., Summers, R. W. & Thomas, L. 2012 Surveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area: Trialing a novel method European Journal of Entomology 109:47--53     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Borkin2012,
  author = {Kerry M. Borkin and Ron W. Summers and Len Thomas},
  title = {Surveying abundance and stand type associations of \textit{Formica aquilonia} and \textit{F. lugubris} (Hymenoptera: \textit{Formicidae}) nest mounds over an extensive area: Trialing a novel method},
  journal = {European Journal of Entomology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {47--53}
}
Borralho, R., Rego, F. & Pinto, P. V. 1996 Is driven transect sampling suitable for estimating red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa densities? Wildlife Biology 2:259--268     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR96,
  author = {Borralho, R. and Rego, F. and Pinto, P. V.},
  title = {Is driven transect sampling suitable for estimating red-legged partridge \textit{Alectoris rufa} densities?},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {259--268}
}
Bottenberg, H., Litsinger, J. A. & Kenmore, P. E. 1992 A line transect survey method for rice tungro virus Proceedings, Third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Volume V :      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Botetal92,
  author = {Bottenberg, H. and Litsinger, J. A. and Kenmore, P. E.},
  title = {A line transect survey method for rice tungro virus},
  booktitle = {Proceedings, Third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Volume V},
  year = {1992}
}
Bovendorp, R. S. & Galetti, M. 2007 Density and population size of mammals introduced on a land-bridge island in southeastern Brazil Biological Invasions 9:353-357   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10530-006-9031-7,
  author = {Bovendorp, Ricardo Siqueira and Galetti, Mauro},
  title = {Density and population size of mammals introduced on a land-bridge island in southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biological Invasions},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {353-357},
  note = {10.1007/s10530-006-9031-7},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006-9031-7}
}
Bowden, D., White, G., Franklin, A. & Ganey, J. 2003 Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates Journal of Wildlife Management 67:1--10      
Abstract: Finite population sampling theory is useful in estimating total population size (abundance) from abundance estimates of each sampled unit (quadrat). We develop estimators that allow correlated quadrat abundance estimates, even for quadrats in different sampling strata. Correlated quadrat abundance estimates based on mark-recapture or distance sampling methods occur when data are pooled across quadrats to estimate, for example, capture probability parameters or sighting functions. When only minimal information is available from each quadrat, pooling of data across quadrats may be necessary to efficiently estimate capture probabilities or sighting functions. We further include information from a quadrat-based auxiliary variable to more precisely estimate total population size via a ratio estimator. We also provide variance estimators for the difference between or the ratio of 2 abundance estimates, taken at different times. We present an example based on estimating the number of Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the Upper Gila Mountains Recovery Unit, Arizona and New Mexico, USA. Owl abundance for each quadrat was estimated with a Huggins 4-pass mark-resight population estimator, but with initial capture and resighting probabilities modeled in common across all sample quadrats. Pooling mark-resight data across quadrats was necessary because few owls were marked on individual quadrats to estimate quadrat-specific capture probabilities. Model-based estimates of owl abundance for each quadrat necessitated variance estimation procedures that take into account correlated quadrat estimates. An auxiliary variable relating to topographic roughness of sampled quadrats provided a useful covariate for a ratio estimator.
BibTeX:
@article{Bowden2003,
  author = {Bowden, D.C. and White, G.C. and Franklin, A.B. and Ganey, J.L.},
  title = {Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {67},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--10}
}
Bozec, Y.-M., Kulbicki, M., Laloë, F., Mou-Tham, G. & Gascuel, D. 2011 Factors affecting the detection distances of reef fish: implications for visual counts Marine Biology 158:969-981   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s00227-011-1623-9,
  author = {Bozec, Yves-Marie and Kulbicki, Michel and Laloë, Francis and Mou-Tham, Gérard and Gascuel, Didier},
  title = {Factors affecting the detection distances of reef fish: implications for visual counts},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {158},
  pages = {969-981},
  note = {10.1007/s00227-011-1623-9},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-011-1623-9}
}
Bradford, A. L., Forney, K. A., Oleson, E. M. & Barlow, J. 2014 Accounting for Subgroup Structure in Line-Transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian Waters PLoS ONE 9:e90464   DOI URL    
Abstract:

For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai’i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479–5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97–3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns.

BibTeX:
@article{10.1371/journal.pone.0090464,
  author = {Bradford, Amanda L. AND Forney, Karin A. AND Oleson, Erin M. AND Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Accounting for Subgroup Structure in Line-Transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian Waters},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {e90464},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0090464},
  doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0090464}
}
Bradford, A. L., Forney, K. A., Oleson, E. M. & Barlow, J. 2012 Line-transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the Pelagic Region of the Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone and in the Insular Waters of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bradford2012,
  author = {Amanda L. Bradford and Karin A. Forney and Erin M. Oleson and Jay Barlow},
  title = {Line-transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (\textit{Pseudorca crassidens}) in the Pelagic Region of the Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone and in the Insular Waters of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands},
  year = {2012},
  number = {Administrative Report H-12-02}
}
Branch, T. Humpback whale abundance south of 60S from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys Submitted to the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue) :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Branch,
  author = {T.A. Branch},
  title = {Humpback whale abundance south of 60S from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys},
  journal = {Submitted to the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue)}
}
Brandt, C. A. & Rickard, W. H. 1992 Effects of survey frequency on bird density estimates in the shrub-steppe environment Northwest Science 66:172--182      
BibTeX:
@article{BraRic92,
  author = {Brandt, C. A. and Rickard, W. H.},
  title = {Effects of survey frequency on bird density estimates in the shrub-steppe environment},
  journal = {Northwest Science},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {172--182}
}
Braulik, G. T., Bhatti, Z. I., Ehsan, T., Hussain, B., Khan, A. R., Khan, A., Khan, U., Kundi, K. U., Rajput, R., Reichert, A. P., Northridge, S. P., Bhagat, H. B. & Garstang, R. 2012 Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia Endangered Species Research 17:201-215     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Braulik2012,
  author = {Gillian T. Braulik and Zahid I. Bhatti and Tahir Ehsan and Babar Hussain and Abdul R. Khan and Ashfaq Khan and Uzma Khan and Khalil U. Kundi and Rafiq Rajput and Albert P. Reichert and Simon P. Northridge and Hussain B. Bhagat and Richard Garstang},
  title = {Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {201-215}
}
Breiwick, J. M., Rugh, D. J., Withrow, D. E., Dahlheim, M. E. & Buckland, S. T. 1988 Preliminary population estimate of gray whales during the 1987/88 southward migration  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Breetal88,
  author = {Breiwick, J. M. and Rugh, D. J. and Withrow, D. E. and Dahlheim, M. E. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Preliminary population estimate of gray whales during the 1987/88 southward migration},
  year = {1988},
  number = {Paper SC/40/PS12}
}
Brennan, L. A. & Block, W. M. 1986 Line transect estimates of mountain quail density Journal of Wildlife Management 50:373--377      
BibTeX:
@article{BreBlo86,
  author = {Brennan, L. A. and Block, W. M.},
  title = {Line transect estimates of mountain quail density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {373--377}
}
Brewster, J. P. & Simons, T. R. 2009 Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts Journal of Field Ornithology 80:178--182   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Brewster2009,
  author = {Brewster, Jerome P. and Simons, Theodore R.},
  title = {Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {80},
  pages = {178--182},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1557-9263.2009.00220.x}
}
Briggs, K. T., Tyler, W. B. & Lewis, D. B. 1985 Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments Journal of Wildlife Management 49:412--417      
BibTeX:
@article{Brietal85,
  author = {Briggs, K. T. and Tyler, W. B. and Lewis, D. B.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {412--417}
}
Brockelman, W. Y. 1980 The use of the line transect sampling method for forest primates Tropical Ecology and Development :367--371      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bro80,
  author = {Brockelman, W. Y.},
  title = {The use of the line transect sampling method for forest primates},
  booktitle = {Tropical Ecology and Development},
  publisher = {The International Society of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1980},
  pages = {367--371}
}
Broekema, I. & Overdyck, O. 2012 Distance sampling to estimate densities of four native forest bird species during multispecies surveys New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36:     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Broekema2012,
  author = {Iris Broekema and Oliver Overdyck},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate densities of four native forest bird species during multispecies surveys},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {36}
}
Broome, L. S., Bishop, K. D. & Anderson, D. R. 1984 Population density and habitat use by Megapodius freyinet eremita in West New Britain Australian Wildlife Research 11:161--171      
BibTeX:
@article{Broetal84,
  author = {Broome, L. S. and Bishop, K. D. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Population density and habitat use by \textit{Megapodius freyinet eremita} in {W}est {N}ew {B}ritain},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {161--171}
}
Brown, B. M. & Cowling, A. 1998 Clustering and abundance estimation for Neyman-Scott models and line transect surveys Biometrika 85:427--438      
Abstract: This paper considers the estimation of clustering parameters and mean species intensity based on likelihood theory for the simplified Neyman-Scott Poisson model, with observations taken from line transect surveys with a Gaussian detection function. The estimators and accompanying standard error expressions are tractable and easy to calculate, and, coming from likelihood methods, often will have high efficiency. Such properties compare favourably with those of existing K-function methods which however are semiparametric in nature and less reliant on specific parametric assumptions. The likelihood analysis reveals auxiliary information which could be used to check the form of the detection function.
BibTeX:
@article{BroCow98,
  author = {Brown, B. M. and Cowling, A.},
  title = {Clustering and abundance estimation for {N}eyman-{S}cott models and line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {427--438}
}
Brown, J. A. & Boyce, M. S. 1998 Line transect sampling of Karner blue butterflies (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) Environmental and Ecological Statistics 5:81-91      
Abstract: Line transect sampling is an effective survey method for estimating butterfly densities because it provides unbiased estimates of site-density (provided key assumptions are met), and estimates are comparable among sites. For monitoring Karner blue butterflies in Wisconsin, USA, comparable estimates are required because each year a different selection of sites will be monitored. Annual state-wide indices of species abundance can be derived from the site-surveys and compared to previous year's indices to monitor trends. We advocate that line transect sampling is preferable to Pollard-Yates transects as a survey technique for monitoring Karner blue butterflies. The Pollard-Yates surveys do not adjust for differences in site detectability. As a consequence, estimates of among-site from Pollard-Yates surveys can be biased. © 1998 Chapman & Hall.
BibTeX:
@article{Broboy98,
  author = {Brown, J. A. and Boyce, M. S.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of {K}arner blue butterflies (\emph{{L}ycaeides melissa samuelis})},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {81-91},
  note = {ID263}
}
Brunk, H. D. 1978 Univariate density estimation by orthogonal series Biometrika 65:521--528      
BibTeX:
@article{Bru78,
  author = {Brunk, H. D.},
  title = {Univariate density estimation by orthogonal series},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {521--528}
}
Buchanan, G., Pearce-Higgins, J. & Grant, M. 2006 Observer variation in estimates of Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis and Skylark Alauda arvensis abundance on moorland Bird Study 53:92--95      
Abstract: Capsule Counts least susceptible to observer effects were those within 25 m of a transect and the total number along a transect, with observer effects greater for distance sampling. © 2006 British Trust for Ornithology.
BibTeX:
@article{Buchanan2006,
  author = {Buchanan, G.M. and Pearce-Higgins, J.W. and Grant, M.C.},
  title = {Observer variation in estimates of Meadow Pipit \textit{Anthus pratensis} and Skylark \textit{Alauda arvensis} abundance on moorland},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {92--95}
}
Buckland, S. T. 2006 Point transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies The Auk 123:345--357     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2006,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Point transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  number = {2},
  pages = {345--357}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1992 Fitting density functions with polynomials Applied Statistics 41:63--76      
BibTeX:
@article{BUC92a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Fitting density functions with polynomials},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {63--76}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1992 Maximum likelihood fitting of Hermite and simple polynomial densities Applied Statistics 41:241--266      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc92b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Maximum likelihood fitting of {H}ermite and simple polynomial densities},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {241--266}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1992 Effects of heterogeneity on estimation of probability of detection on the trackline Report of the International Whaling Commission 42:569--573      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc92c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Effects of heterogeneity on estimation of probability of detection on the trackline},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {569--573}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1987 On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density Biometrics 43:363--384      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {363--384}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1987 An assessment of the performance of line transect models for fitting IWC/IDCR cruise data, 1978/79 to 1984/85 Report of the International Whaling Commission 37:277--279      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {An assessment of the performance of line transect models for fitting {IWC/IDCR} cruise data, 1978/79 to 1984/85},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {277--279}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1987 Estimation of minke whale numbers from the 1984/85 IWC/IDCR Antarctic sightings data Report of the International Whaling Commission 37:263--288      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Estimation of minke whale numbers from the 1984/85 {IWC/IDCR A}ntarctic sightings data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {263--288}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1985 Perpendicular distance models for line transect sampling Biometrics 41:177--195      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc85,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Perpendicular distance models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {177--195}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1984 Monte Carlo confidence intervals Biometrics 40:811--817      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc84,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Monte {C}arlo confidence intervals},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {811--817}
}
Buckland, S. T. 1982 A note on the Fourier series model for analysing line transect data Biometrics 38:469--477      
BibTeX:
@article{Buc82,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {A note on the {F}ourier series model for analysing line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {469--477}
}
Buckland, S. T. & Anderson, D. R. 2004 Introduction to advanced distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling :1-6      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buckland2004,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Introduction to advanced distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Laake, J. L. 1993 Distance Sampling - Estimating abundance of biological populations  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@book{BUC93,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Distance Sampling - Estimating abundance of biological populations},
  publisher = {Chapman and Hall},
  year = {1993}
}
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., Laake, J. L., Borchers, D. & Thomas, L. 2004 Advanced Distance Sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@book{BUC04,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004}
}
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., Laake, J. L., Borchers, D. L. & Thomas, L. 2001 Introduction to distance sampling - Estimating abundance of biological populations  :      
BibTeX:
@book{BUC01,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Introduction to distance sampling - Estimating abundance of biological populations},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2001}
}
Buckland, S. T. & Anganuzzi, A. A. 1988 Comparison of smearing methods in the analysis of minke sightings data from IWC/IDCR Antarctic cruises Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:257--263      
BibTeX:
@article{BucAng88a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Comparison of smearing methods in the analysis of minke sightings data from {IWC/IDCR A}ntarctic cruises},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {257--263}
}
Buckland, S. T. & Anganuzzi, A. A. 1988 Estimated trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:411--437      
BibTeX:
@article{BucAng88b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Estimated trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical {P}acific},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {411--437}
}
Buckland, S. T., Bloch, D., Cattanach, K. L., Gunnlaugsson, T., Hoydal, K., Lens, S. & Sigurjónsson, J. 1993 Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales :33--49      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bucetal93b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Bloch, D. and Cattanach, K. L. and Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Hoydal, K. and Lens, S. and Sigurj\'onsson,J.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the {N}orth {A}tlantic, estimated from {NASS}-87 and {NASS}-89 data},
  booktitle = {Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales},
  publisher = {International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {33--49}
}
Buckland, S. T., Borchers, D. L., Johnston, A., Henrys, P. A. & Marques, T. A. 2007 Line transect methods for plant surveys Biometrics 63:989--998     PDF  
Review: Tenho IMPRESSO
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal07,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Johnston, A. and Henrys, P. A. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Line transect methods for plant surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {989--998}
}
Buckland, S. T. & Breiwick, J. M. 2002 Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts, 1967/68 to 1995/96 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4:41--48      
BibTeX:
@article{BucBre02,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M.},
  title = {Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts, 1967/68 to 1995/96},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {41--48}
}
Buckland, S. T., Breiwick, J. M., Cattanach, K. L. & Laake, J. L. 1993 Estimated population size of the California gray whale Marine Mammal Science 9:235--249      
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal93c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M. and Cattanach, K. L. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimated population size of the {C}alifornia gray whale},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {235--249}
}
Buckland, S. T., Burnham, K. P. & Augustin, N. H. 1997 Model selection: an integral part of inference Biometrics 53:603--618      
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal97,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Burnham, K. P. and Augustin, N. H.},
  title = {Model selection: an integral part of inference},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {603--618}
}
Buckland, S. T., Burt, M. L., Rexstad, E. A., Mellor, M., Williams, A. E. & Woodward, R. 2012 Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods Journal of Applied Ecology 49:960--967      
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Burt, M. L. and Rexstad, E. A. and Mellor, M. and Williams, A. E. and Woodward, R.},
  title = {Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {960--967}
}
Buckland, S. T., Cattanach, K. L. & Anganuzzi, A. A. 1992 Estimating trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, using sightings data collected on commercial tuna vessels Fishery Bulletin 90:1--12      
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal92e,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Estimating trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, using sightings data collected on commercial tuna vessels},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {90},
  pages = {1--12}
}
Buckland, S. T., Cattanach, K. L. & Gunnlaugsson, T. 1992 Fin whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from Icelandic and Faroese NASS-87 and NASS-89 data Report of the International Whaling Commission 42:645--651      
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal92d,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L. and Gunnlaugsson, Th.},
  title = {Fin whale abundance in the {N}orth {A}tlantic, estimated from {I}celandic and {F}aroese {NASS}-87 and {NASS}-89 data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {645--651}
}
Buckland, S. T. & Garthwaite, P. H. 1990 Estimating confidence intervals by the Robbins--Monro search process Applied Statistics 39:413--424      
BibTeX:
@article{BucGar90,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Garthwaite, P. H.},
  title = {Estimating confidence intervals by the {R}obbins--{M}onro search process},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {413--424}
}
Buckland, S. T., Goudie, I. B. J. & Borchers, D. L. 2000 Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions Biometrics 56:1--12      
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal00,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Goudie, I. B. J. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {1--12}
}
Buckland, S. T., Laake, J. L. & Borchers, D. L. 2010 Double-Observer Line Transect Methods: Levels of Independence Biometrics 66:169--177   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2010,
  author = {Stephen T. Buckland and Jeffrey L. Laake and David L. Borchers},
  title = {Double-Observer Line Transect Methods: Levels of Independence},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {169--177},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01239.x}
}
Buckland, S. T., Marsden, S. J. & Green, R. E. 2008 Estimating bird abundance: making methods work Bird Conservation International 18:S91–S108     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2008,
  author = {Stephen T. Buckland and Stuart J. Marsden and Rhys E. Green},
  title = {Estimating bird abundance: making methods work},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {S91–S108}
}
Buckland, S. T., Plumptre, A. J., Thomas, L. & Rexstad, E. A. 2010 Line Transect Sampling of Primates: Can Animal-to-Observer Distance Methods Work? International Journal of Primatology 31:485-499   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-010-9408-4,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Plumptre, Andrew J. and Thomas, Len and Rexstad, Eric A.},
  title = {Line Transect Sampling of Primates: Can Animal-to-Observer Distance Methods Work?},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {485-499},
  note = {10.1007/s10764-010-9408-4},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9408-4}
}
Buckland, S. T., Plumptre, A. J., Thomas, L. & Rexstad, E. A. 2010 Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates International Journal of Primatology 31:833-847   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-010-9431-5,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Plumptre, Andrew J. and Thomas, Len and Rexstad, Eric A.},
  title = {Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {833-847},
  note = {10.1007/s10764-010-9431-5},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9431-5}
}
Buckland, S. T., Russell, R. E., Dickson, B. G., Saab, V. A., Gorman, D. N. & Block, W. M. 2009 Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 14:432--442     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2009a,
  author = {Stephen T. Buckland and Robin E. Russell and Brett G. Dickson and Victoria A. Saab and Donal N. Gorman and William M. Block},
  title = {Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {432--442}
}
Buckland, S. T., Summers, R. W., Borchers, D. L. & Thomas, L. 2006 Point transect sampling with traps or lures Journal of Applied Ecology 43:377--384     PDF  
Abstract: 1. The ability to monitor abundance of animal populations is becoming increasingly important, in light of growing concerns over the loss of biodiversity through anthropogenic changes. A widely used tool for such monitoring is distance sampling, in which distances of detected animals from a line or point are modelled, to estimate detectability and hence abundance. Nevertheless, many species still prove problematic to survey. We have developed two extensions to point transect sampling that potentially allow abundance to be estimated for a number of species from diverse taxa for which good survey methods have not previously been available. 2. For each method, the primary survey comprises a random sample of points, or more usually a systematic grid of points, through the region of interest. Animals are lured to a point, or trapped at a point, and the number of animals observed at each point is recorded. A separate study is conducted on a subset of animals, to record whether they respond to the lure or enter the trap, for a range of known distances from the point. These data are used to estimate the probability that an animal will respond to the lure or enter the trap, as a function of its initial distance from the point. This allows the counts to be converted to an estimate of abundance in the survey region. 3. We illustrated the methods using a lure survey of crossbills Loxia spp. in coniferous woodland in Scotland. 4. Synthesis and applications. Two extensions of point transect sampling that use the same statistical methodology, lure point transects and trapping point transects, have been developed. Lure point transects extend the applicability of distance sampling to species that can be lured to a point, while trapping point transects potentially allow abundance estimation of species that can be trapped, with fewer resources needed than trapping webs and conventional mark-recapture methods. © 2006 British Ecological Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2006b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Summers, R. W. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Point transect sampling with traps or lures},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {43},
  number = {2},
  pages = {377--384}
}
Buckland, S. T., Thomas, L., Marques, F. F. C., Strindberg, S., Hedley, S. L., Pollard, J. H., Borchers, D. L. & Burt, M. L. 2002 Distance sampling: recent advances and future directions Quantitative Methods for Current Environmental Issues :79--97      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bucetal02,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Thomas, L. and Marques, F. F. C. and Strindberg, S. and Hedley, S. L. and Pollard, J. H. and Borchers, D. L. and Burt, M. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling: recent advances and future directions},
  booktitle = {Quantitative Methods for Current Environmental Issues},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {79--97}
}
Buckland, S. T. & Turnock, B. J. 1992 A robust line transect method Biometrics 48:901--909      
BibTeX:
@article{BucTur92,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Turnock, B. J.},
  title = {A robust line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {901--909}
}
Buford, E., Capen, D. & Williams, B. 1996 Distance sampling to estimate fledgling brood density of forest birds Canadian Field-Naturalist 110:642--648      
Abstract: Research on the status of avian communities often relies on estimates of abundance, but does not always consider demographic factors such as productivity. We introduce the application of a distance-sampling technique for estimating brood density of fledgling birds in forested habitats. During 1993 and 1994, we conducted 60 line-transect surveys on 10 sites in the Green Mountain National Forest in Vermont. Sites were divided into two groups, which allowed us to test for differences in fledgling density between groups. We detected 508 broods representing 38 species. Using standard distance-sampling procedures, we estimated densities of 0.576 (C.V.= 11.89) and 0.513 (C.V.=12.54) broods per hectare. Density was not statistically different between groups. As with other survey methods, distance sampling favors easily detected species; however, line-transect density of fledglings is less obtrusive and less labor-intesive than mist-netting or nest searches, and can contribute important information to studies of avian communities.
BibTeX:
@article{Buford1996,
  author = {Buford, E.W. and Capen, D.E. and Williams, B.K.},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate fledgling brood density of forest birds},
  journal = {Canadian Field-Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {110},
  number = {4},
  pages = {642--648}
}
Buford, E. W. & Capen, D. E. 1999 Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in Vermont Journal of Wildlife Management 63:180--188      
Abstract: Effective conservation of forest songbirds requires knowledge of responses to landscape pattern. We studied a breeding songbird community in a landscape characterized by scattered openings in a forest matrix in Vermont, 1993-94. We measured species composition, abundance, and fledgling brood density in the forested areas of 10500-ha sites; we compared a group of 5 disturbed-canopy sites (?10% canopy disturbance) with a control group of 5 undisturbed-canopy sites. We conducted 456 point counts to determine species composition and abundance, and we conducted 60 line transect surveys to estimate fledgling brood density as a measure of productivity. Adult densities were not different between groups (P > 0.05) for 18 species listed as priority for conservation, although power was low. Combined brood densities of all species, Neotropical migrants, and ground nesters were not different among groups (P > 0.05). Brood densities of 3 Neotropical migrants also were not different (P > 0.05). However, combined brood density of area-sensitive, forest interior species was greater on control sites (P < 0.05). At the scale of this study, a minimal amount of canopy removal in the extensively forested landscape did not affect abundance and overall productivity of songbirds inhabiting the remaining forest, but canopy removal had begun to suppress productivity of some forest interior species.
BibTeX:
@article{Buford1999,
  author = {Buford, E. W. and Capen, D. E.},
  title = {Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in Vermont},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {180--188}
}
Burdick, D. L. 1979 On estimation of the number of porpoise schools  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Burd79,
  author = {Burdick, D. L.},
  title = {On estimation of the number of porpoise schools},
  year = {1979},
  number = {Publication 79--2}
}
Burnham, K. P. 1981 Summarizing remarks: environmental influences Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6 :324--325      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bur81,
  author = {Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Summarizing remarks: environmental influences},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {324--325}
}
Burnham, K. P. 1979 A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling Biometrics 35:587--595      
BibTeX:
@article{Bur79,
  author = {Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {A parametric generalization of the {H}ayne estimator for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {587--595}
}
Burnham, K. P. & Anderson, D. R. 2004 Understanding AIC and BIC in Model Selection Sociological Methods & Research 33:261-304      
BibTeX:
@article{Burnham2004,
  author = {Kenneth P. Burnham and David R. Anderson},
  title = {Understanding {AIC and BIC} in Model Selection},
  journal = {Sociological Methods \& Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {261-304}
}
Burnham, K. P. & Anderson, D. R. 1984 The need for distance data in transect counts Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1248--1254      
BibTeX:
@article{BurAnd84,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {The need for distance data in transect counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {1248--1254}
}
Burnham, K. P. & Anderson, D. R. 1976 Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data Biometrics 32:325--336      
BibTeX:
@article{BurAnd76,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {325--336}
}
Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. & Laake, J. L. 1981 Line transect estimation of bird population density using a Fourier series Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6 :466--482      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buretal81,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of bird population density using a {F}ourier series},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {466--482}
}
Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. & Laake, J. L. 1985 Efficiency and bias in strip and line transect sampling Journal of Wildlife Management 49:1012--1018      
BibTeX:
@article{Buretal85,
  author = {Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Efficiency and bias in strip and line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {1012--1018}
}
Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. & Laake, J. L. 1980 Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations Wildlife Monographs 72:1--202      
BibTeX:
@article{BUR80,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1--202}
}
Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. & Laake, J. L. 1979 Robust estimation from line transect data Journal of Wildlife Management 43:992--996      
BibTeX:
@article{Buretal79,
  author = {Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Robust estimation from line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {992--996}
}
Burnham, K. P., Buckland, S. T., Laake, J. L., Borchers, D. L., Marques, T. A., Bishop, J. R. B. & Thomas, L. 2004 Further topics in distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling :307-392      
BibTeX:
@incollection{BUR04,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Buckland, S. T. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Bishop, J. R. B. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Further topics in distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {307-392}
}
Butler, M., Wallace, M., Ballard, W., DeMaso, S. & Applegate, R. 2005 From the Field: The relationship of Rio Grande wild turkey distributions to roads Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:745--748     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2005,
  author = {Butler, M.J. and Wallace, M.C. and Ballard, W.B. and DeMaso, S.J. and Applegate, R.D.},
  title = {{From the Field: The relationship of Rio Grande wild turkey distributions to roads}},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33},
  number = {2},
  pages = {745--748}
}
Butler, M. J., Ballard, W. B., Wallace, M. C. & Demaso, S. J. 2007 Road-Based Surveys for Estimating Wild Turkey Density in the Texas Rolling Plains Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1646--1653   URL   PDF  
Abstract: Line-transect&#8211;based distance sampling has been used to estimate density of several wild bird species including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). We used inflatable turkey decoys during autumn (Aug&#8211;Nov) and winter (Dec&#8211;Mar) 2003&#8211;2005 at 3 study sites in the Texas Rolling Plains, USA, to simulate Rio Grande wild turkey (M. g. intermedia) flocks. We evaluated detectability of flocks using logistic regression models. Our modeling effort suggested that distance to a flock and flock size played important roles in flock detectability. We also conducted surveys from roads for wild turkeys during November 2004&#8211;January 2006. The detection probability of decoy flocks was similar to wild turkey flocks during winter (decoy flock, 69.3 &#177; 6.2&#37; &#91; &#177; 95&#37; CI&#93;; wild turkey flock, 62.2 &#177; 18.3&#37;) and autumn (decoy flock, 44.1 &#177; 5.1&#37;; wild turkey flock, 44.7 &#177; 25.6&#37;), which suggested that using decoys was appropriate for evaluating detectability of wild turkey flocks from roads. We conducted computer simulations to evaluate the performance of line-transect&#8211;based distance sampling and examined the power to detect trends in population change. Simulations suggested that population density may be underestimated by 12&#37; during winter and 29&#37; during autumn. Such bias occurred because of incomplete detectability of flocks near roads. Winter surveys tended to have less bias, lower relative variability, and greater power than did autumn surveys. During winter surveys, power was sufficient (&#8805;0.80) to detect a 10&#8211;25&#37; change in population density in 8&#8211;12 years using &#8805;100 16-km transects or &#8805;80 32-km transects. We concluded line-transect&#8211;based distance sampling from roads is an efficient, effective, and inexpensive technique for monitoring Rio Grande wild turkey populations across large scales.
BibTeX:
@article{BUTLER2007,
  author = {Butler, Matthew J. and Ballard, Warren B. and Wallace, Mark C. and Demaso, Stephen J.},
  title = {Road-Based Surveys for Estimating Wild Turkey Density in the Texas Rolling Plains},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1646--1653
},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2193%2F2006-270}
}
Butterworth, D. S. 1986 A note on the analysis of the 1980/81 variable speed experiment Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:485--489      
BibTeX:
@article{But86,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {A note on the analysis of the 1980/81 variable speed experiment},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {485--489}
}
Butterworth, D. S. 1982 A possible basis for choosing a functional form for the distribution of sightings with right angle distance: some preliminary ideas Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:555--558      
BibTeX:
@article{But82,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {A possible basis for choosing a functional form for the distribution of sightings with right angle distance: some preliminary ideas},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {555--558}
}
Butterworth, D. S. 1982 On the functional form used for $g(y)$ for minke whale sightings, and bias in its estimation due to measurement inaccuracies Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:883--888      
BibTeX:
@article{But82b,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {On the functional form used for $g(y)$ for minke whale sightings, and bias in its estimation due to measurement inaccuracies},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {883--888}
}
Butterworth, D. S. & Best, P. B. 1982 Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1980/81 Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:835--874      
BibTeX:
@article{ButBes82,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B.},
  title = {Report of the {S}outhern {H}emisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1980/81},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {835--874}
}
Butterworth, D. S., Best, P. B. & Basson, M. 1982 Results of analysis of sighting experiments carried out during the 1980/81 Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:819--834      
BibTeX:
@article{Butetal82c,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B. and Basson, M.},
  title = {Results of analysis of sighting experiments carried out during the 1980/81 {S}outhern {H}emisphere minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {819--834}
}
Butterworth, D. S., Best, P. B. & Hembree, D. 1984 Analysis of experiments carried out during the 1981/82 IWC/IDCR Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise in Area II Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:365--392      
Review: This paper deals with experiments made to assess distance estimation procedures.

For one of the boats tested, massive underestimation was noted, with distances being a posteriori multiplied by 1.38 to correct for that fact.

BibTeX:
@article{Butetal84,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B. and Hembree, D.},
  title = {Analysis of experiments carried out during the 1981/82 {IWC/IDCR A}ntarctic minke whale assessment cruise in {Area II}},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {365--392}
}
Butterworth, D. S. & Borchers, D. L. 1988 Estimates of $g(0)$ for minke schools from the results of the independent observer experiment on the 1985/86 and 1986/87 IWC/IDCR Antarctic assessment cruises Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:301--313      
BibTeX:
@article{ButBor88,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Estimates of $g(0)$ for minke schools from the results of the independent observer experiment on the 1985/86 and 1986/87 {IWC/IDCR} {A}ntarctic assessment cruises},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {301--313}
}
Byth, K. 1982 On robust distance-based intensity estimators Biometrics 38:127--135      
BibTeX:
@article{Byt82,
  author = {Byth, K.},
  title = {On robust distance-based intensity estimators},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {127--135}
}
Byth, K. & Ripley, B. D. 1980 On sampling spatial patterns by distance methods Biometrics 36:279--284      
BibTeX:
@article{BytRip36,
  author = {Byth, K. and Ripley, B. D.},
  title = {On sampling spatial patterns by distance methods},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {279--284}
}
Cahill, A. J., Walker, J. S. & Marsden, S. J. 2006 Recovery within a population of the Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control Oryx 40:161--167      
BibTeX:
@article{Cahill2006,
  author = {Cahill, A. J. and Walker, J. S. and Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Recovery within a population of the {Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo \textit{Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata} in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control}},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {161--167}
}
Calambokidis, J. & Barlow, J. 2004 Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern north pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods Marine Mammal Science 20:63--85     PDF  
Abstract: We estimated humpback and blue whale abundance from 1991 to 1997 off the west coast of the U.S. and Mexico comparing capture-recapture models based on photographically identified animals and line-transect methods from ship-based surveys. During photo-identification research we obtained 4,212 identifications of 824 humpback whales and 2,403 identifications of 908 blue whales primarily through non-systematic small-boat surveys along the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. Line-transect surveys from NOAA ships in 1991, 1993, and 1996 covered approximately 39,000 km along the coast of Baja California, California, Oregon, and Washington out to 555 km from shore. The nearshore and clumped distribution of humpback whales allowed photographic identification from small boats to cost-effectively sample a substantial portion of the population, but made it difficult to obtain effective samples in the line-transect surveys covering broad areas. The humpback capture-recapture estimates indicated humpback whale abundance increased over the six years (from 569 to 837). The broader more offshore distribution of blue whales made it harder to obtain a representative sample of identification photographs, but was well suited to the line-transect estimates. The line-transect estimates, after correction for missed animals, indicated approximately 3,000 blue whales (CV = 0.14). Capture-recapture estimates of blue whales were lower than this: approximately 2,000 when using photographs obtained from the line-transect surveys as one of the samples. Comparison of the results from the two methods provides validation, as well as insight into potential biases associated with each method.
BibTeX:
@article{Calambokidis2004,
  author = {Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern north pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {1},
  pages = {63--85}
}
Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G. H., Ellifrit, D. K., Troutman, B. L. & Bowlby, C. E. 2004 Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington coast Fisheries Bulletin 102:563--580     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Calambokidis2004a,
  author = {John Calambokidis and Gretchen H. Steiger and David K. Ellifrit and Barry L. Troutman and C. Edward Bowlby},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (\textit{Megaptera novaeangliae}) and other marine mammals off the northern {W}ashington coast},
  journal = {Fisheries Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {102},
  pages = {563--580}
}
Camacho, C., Feinberg, J. & Green, T. 2005 Use of the program distance to assess population size of the eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Camacho,
  author = {Camacho, C., and Feinberg, J. and Green, T.},
  title = {Use of the program distance to assess population size of the eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory},
  year = {2005},
  note = {Poster}
}
Camp, R. 2007 Measurement errors in Hawaiian forest bird surveys and their effect on density estimation  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Camp2007,
  author = {Rick Camp},
  title = {Measurement errors in Hawaiian forest bird surveys and their effect on density estimation},
  year = {2007},
  number = {Technical Report HCSU-005}
}
Camp, R.J., P. T. M. A. A. F. W. L. 2009 Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia Bird Conservation International 19:323-337   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Camp2009323,
  author = {Camp, R.J., Pratt, T.K., Marshall, A.P., Amidon, F., Williams, L.L.},
  title = {Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {19},
  number = {4},
  pages = {323-337},
  note = {cited By (since 1996) 0},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-74149094996&partnerID=40&md5=030dd43c00d96a1562faf32b1da3b699}
}
Cañadas, A., Desportes, G. & Borchers, D. 2004 The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for shortbeaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), using doubleplatform data collected during the NASS-95 Faroese survey Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6:191--198     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{CANADAS2004,
  author = {A. Cañadas And G. Desportes And D. Borchers},
  title = {The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for shortbeaked common dolphins (\textit{Delphinus delphis}), using doubleplatform data collected during the {NASS-95 Faroese} survey},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {191--198}
}
Cañadas, A. & Hammond, P. 2008 Abundance and habitat preferences of the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the southwestern Mediterranean: implications for conservation Endangered Species Research 4:309--331   URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Canadas2008,
  author = {A. Cañadas and P.S. Hammond},
  title = {Abundance and habitat preferences of the short-beaked common dolphin \textit{Delphinus delphis} in the southwestern Mediterranean: implications for conservation},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {309--331},
  url = {http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v4/n3/p309-331/}
}
Cañadas, A. & Hammond, P. 2006 Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: implications for conservation and management Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:13-27      
BibTeX:
@article{Canadas2006,
  author = {A. Cañadas and P.S. Hammond},
  title = {Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: implications for conservation and management},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {13-27}
}
Carrascal, L. M., Seoane, J. & Palomino, D. 2008 Density bias estimations using strip transects in dry open–country environments in the Canary Islands Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 31:45--50      
BibTeX:
@article{Carrascal2008,
  author = {Carrascal, L. M. and Seoane, J. and Palomino, D.},
  title = {Density bias estimations using strip transects in dry open–country environments in the Canary Islands},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {45--50}
}
Carretta, J., Taylor, B. & Chivers, S. 2001 Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey Fishery Bulletin 99:29--39     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Carretta2001,
  author = {Carretta, J.V. and Taylor, B.L. and Chivers, S.J.},
  title = {Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  number = {1},
  pages = {29--39}
}
Carretta, J. V., Chivers, S. J. & Perryman, W. L. 2011 Abundance of the long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) in California and western Baja California waters estimated from a 2009 ship-based line-transect survey Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 110:152-164     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Carretta2011,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and S. J. Chivers and W. L. Perryman},
  title = {Abundance of the long-beaked common dolphin (\textit{Delphinus capensis}) in California and western Baja California waters estimated from a 2009 ship-based line-transect survey},
  journal = {Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {110},
  pages = {152-164}
}
Carretta, J. V., Forney, K. A. & Laake, J. L. 1998 Abundance of California coastal bottlenose dolphins estimated from tandem aerial surveys Marine Mammal Science 14:655--675     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Caretal98,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Forney, K. A. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Abundance of {C}alifornia coastal bottlenose dolphins estimated from tandem aerial surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {655--675}
}
Carvalho, J. S., Marques, T. A. & Vicente, L. 2013 Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau Plos ONE 8:e71527   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Carvalho2013,
  author = {Joana Silva Carvalho and Tiago A. Marques and Luis Vicente},
  title = {Population status of \textit{Pan troglodytes verus} in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau},
  journal = {Plos ONE},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {e71527},
  doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0071527}
}
Casagrande, D. G. & Beissinger, S. R. 1997 Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size Condor 99:445--457     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{CasBei97,
  author = {Casagrande, D. G. and Beissinger, S. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {445--457}
}
Cassey, P. 1999 Estimating animal abundance by distance sampling techniques  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Cassey1999a,
  author = {Phillip Cassey},
  title = {Estimating animal abundance by distance sampling techniques},
  year = {1999}
}
Cassey, P., Craig, J. L., McArdle, B. H. & Barraclough, R. K. 2007 Distance sampling techniques compared for a New Zealand endemic passerine (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) New Zealand Journal of Ecology 31:223--231     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Cassey2007,
  author = {Phillip Cassey and John L. Craig and Brian H. McArdle and Rosemary K. Barraclough},
  title = {Distance sampling techniques compared for a {New Zealand} endemic passerine (\textit{Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater})},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {223--231}
}
Cassey, P. & Mcardle, B. 1999 An assessment of distance sampling techniques for estimating animal abundance Environmetrics 10:261--278     PDF  
Abstract: Line transects have been widely applied for the estimation of animal abundance because they are regarded as simple, economical, and relatively precise. The recent development of automated techniques for the estimation of animal density from distance sampling data allows greater potential for field biologists and wildlife managers to become involved in the analytical summary of their research. An assessment was made of the ability of program DISTANCE to produce unbiased estimates of density in spite of potential sources of error from the estimation of transect and population density. Populations were simulated to investigate the robustness of program DISTANCE to changes in the density, distribution, and detection of animals across sampling areas and transects. It is concluded that if distance sampling data is collected reliably from a random sample of possible primary sampling units (PSUs) it can be expected that estimates of density will be presented accurately and with correct estimates of variance. If the proportion of the study area surveyed by transects is large however, then the presence of large between PSU variation will cause the variance estimates from program DISTANCE to be a sizeable overestimate.
BibTeX:
@article{Cassey1999,
  author = {Cassey, P. and Mcardle, B.H.},
  title = {An assessment of distance sampling techniques for estimating animal abundance},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {10},
  number = {3},
  pages = {261--278}
}
Cassey, P. & Ussher, G. T. 1999 Estimating abundance of tuatara Biological Conservation 88:361--366      
BibTeX:
@article{CasUsh99,
  author = {Cassey, P. and Ussher, G. T.},
  title = {Estimating abundance of tuatara},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {361--366}
}
Catry, F., Rego, F., Santos, T., Almeida, J. & Relvas, P. 2007 Forest fires prevention in Portugal - Using GIS to help improving early fire detection effectiveness Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Catry2007,
  author = {Catry, F.X. and Rego, F.C. and Santos, T. and Almeida, J. and Relvas, P.},
  title = {Forest fires prevention in Portugal - Using GIS to help improving early fire detection effectiveness},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference},
  year = {2007}
}
Catt, D. C., Baines, D., Picozzi, N., Moss, R. & Summers, R. W. 1998 Abundance and distribution of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland 1992-1994 Biological Conservation 85:257--267   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Catetal98,
  author = {Catt, D. C. and Baines, D. and Picozzi, N. and Moss, R. and Summers, R. W.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of capercaillie \textit{{T}etrao urogallus} in {S}cotland 1992-1994},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {257--267},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V5X-3TP5RMP-M/2/cf5ab2da97251aa6edc656e73cc22ab0}
}
Caughley, G. 1974 Bias in aerial survey Journal of Wildlife Management 38:921--933      
BibTeX:
@article{Cau74,
  author = {Caughley, G.},
  title = {Bias in aerial survey},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {921--933}
}
Caughley, G. 1972 Improving the estimates from inaccurate censuses Journal of Wildlife Management 36:135--140      
BibTeX:
@article{Cau72,
  author = {Caughley, G.},
  title = {Improving the estimates from inaccurate censuses},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1972},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {135--140}
}
Caughley, G., Sinclair, R. & Scott-Kemmis, D. 1976 Experiments in aerial survey Journal of Wildlife Management 40:290--300      
BibTeX:
@article{Cauetal76,
  author = {Caughley, G. and Sinclair, R. and Scott-Kemmis, D.},
  title = {Experiments in aerial survey},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {290--300}
}
Ceia, R. S., Ramos, J. A., Heleno, R. H., Hilton, G. M. & Marques, T. A. 2011 Status assessment of the Critically Endangered Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina Bird Conservation International 21:477--489   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Ceia2011,
  author = {Ricardo S. Ceia and Jaime A. Ramos and Ruben H. Heleno and Geoff M. Hilton and Tiago A. Marques},
  title = {Status assessment of the Critically Endangered Azores Bullfinch \textit{Pyrrhula murina}},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {477--489},
  doi = {10.1017/S0959270911000025}
}
Chaez-Leoń, G. & Velaźquez, A. 2004 Abundance and distribution of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a temperate coniferous forest Journal of Field Ornithology 75:345--352      
Abstract: The Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) is a species endemic to Mexico, inhabiting dense coniferous forests of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre del Sur, of which little is known about its ecology and conservation status. The abundance and density of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge was estimated by point counts with playback distance sampling from March-October of 1998-2000 in a temperate coniferous forest managed for timber production by a Mexican indigenous community. The average detection rate was 0.31 individuals per point, resulting in a mean estimate for population density of 20.9 birds/km2 and a mean population estimate of 2679 individuals, estimated using the half-normal key function with cosine adjustments. Density estimates of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge were 8 individuals/km2 in dry, open, scrubby habitats with deep ash and sand volcanic deposits subject to intense human use and in closed canopy, humid forests with moderate human disturbance. Density estimates were 14.6 and 21.5 individuals/km2 in humid, closed canopy, multi-stratified forests. The latter areas are recommended as the core area for protection of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge.
BibTeX:
@article{Chavez-Leon2004,
  author = {Cha{\'v}ez-Leo{\'n}, G. and Vela{\'z}quez, A.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge \textit{(Dendrortyx macroura)} in a temperate coniferous forest},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {75},
  number = {4},
  pages = {345--352}
}
Chafota, J. 1988 Effect of measurement errors in estimating density from line transect sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Cha88,
  author = {Chafota, J.},
  title = {Effect of measurement errors in estimating density from line transect sampling},
  school = {Colorado State University},
  year = {1988}
}
Chandler, R. B., Royle, J. A. & King, D. I. 2011 Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations. Ecology 92:1429--1435     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{ChandlerRB2011,
  author = {Chandler, R. B. and Royle, J. A. and King, D. I.},
  title = {Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations.},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {1429--1435}
}
Chapman, C. A. & Lambert, J. E. 2000 Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda American Journal of Primatology 50:169--185      
BibTeX:
@article{ChaLam00,
  author = {Chapman, C. A. and Lambert, J. E.},
  title = {Habitat alteration and the conservation of {A}frican primates: case study of {K}ibale {N}ational {P}ark, {U}ganda},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {169--185}
}
Chelgren, N. D., Samora, B., Adams, M. J. & McCreary, B. 2011 Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6:175--190     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Chelgren2011,
  author = {Nathan D. Chelgren and Barbara Samora and Michael J. Adams and Brome McCreary},
  title = {Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (\textit{Anaxyrus boreas})},
  journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {175--190}
}
Chelgren, N. D., Samora, B., Adams, M. J. & Mccreary, B. 2011 Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed western toads (Anaxyrus boreas) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6:175-190     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Chelgren2011a,
  author = {Nathan D. Chelgren and Barbara Samora and Michael J. Adams and Brome Mccreary},
  title = {Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed western toads (\textit{Anaxyrus boreas})},
  journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {175-190}
}
Chen, B., Zheng, D., Zhai, F., X. Xu, P. S., Wang, Q. & Yang, G. 2008 Abundance, distribution and conservation of chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Xiamen, China Mammalian Biology 73:156--164      
BibTeX:
@article{Chen2008,
  author = {Bingyao Chen and Dongmei Zheng and Feifei Zhai and X. Xu, P. Sun and Q. Wang and G. Yang},
  title = {Abundance, distribution and conservation of chinese {white dolphins (\textit{Sousa chinensis}) in Xiamen, China}},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {156--164}
}
Chen, S. X. 2000 Animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys Environmental and Ecological Statistics 7:285--299      
BibTeX:
@article{Che00,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {285--299}
}
Chen, S. X. 1999 Estimation in independent observer line transect surveys for clustered populations Biometrics 55:754--759      
BibTeX:
@article{Che99,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Estimation in independent observer line transect surveys for clustered populations},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {754--759}
}
Chen, S. X. 1998 Measurement errors in line transect surveys Biometrics 54:899--908      
BibTeX:
@article{CHE98,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Measurement errors in line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {899--908}
}
Chen, S. X. 1996 A kernel estimate for the density of a biological population by using line transect sampling Applied Statstics 45:135--150      
Review: First use of kernels in line transects.
He reports the minimizing of MISE as way to choose h optimally, and presents the resulting formula assuming a detection close to Gaussian. He also reports LSCV (least-squares cross-validation) for the same purpose.
BibTeX:
@article{CHE96,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {A kernel estimate for the density of a biological population by using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Applied Statstics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {135--150}
}
Chen, S. X. 1996 Studying school size effects in line transect sampling using the kernel method Biometrics 52:1283--1294      
BibTeX:
@article{Che96b,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Studying school size effects in line transect sampling using the kernel method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {1283--1294}
}
Chen, S. X. & Cowling, A. 2001 Measurement errors in line transect surveys where detectability varies with distance and size Biometrics 57:732--742      
BibTeX:
@article{CHE01,
  author = {Chen, S. X. and Cowling, A.},
  title = {Measurement errors in line transect surveys where detectability varies with distance and size},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {732--742}
}
Chen, S. X. & Lloyd, C. J. 2000 A nonparametric approach to the analysis of two-stage mark-recapture experiments Biometrika 87:633--649      
BibTeX:
@article{CheLlo00,
  author = {Chen, S. X. and Lloyd, C. J.},
  title = {A nonparametric approach to the analysis of two-stage mark-recapture experiments},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {633--649}
}
Chen, S. X., Yip, P. S. F. & Zhou, Y. 2002 Sequential Estimation in Line Transect Surveys Biometrics 58:263--269      
Abstract: This article considers using sequential procedures to determine the amount of survey effort required in a line transect survey in order to achieve a certain precision level in estimating the abundance of a biological population. Sequential procedures are constructed for both parametric and nonparametric animal abundance estimators. The criterion used to derive the stopping rules is the width of confidence intervals for the animal abundance. For each estimator considered, we develop stopping rules based on the asymptotic distributions and the bootstrap. A sequential analysis on an aerial survey of the southern bluefin tuna indicates substantial saving of survey effort can be made by employment of the proposed sequential procedures. This savings of survey effort is also observed in a simulation study designed to evaluate the empirical performance of the proposed sequential procedures.
BibTeX:
@article{ChenBiometrics2002,
  author = {Song Xi Chen and Paul S. F. Yip and Yong Zhou},
  title = {Sequential Estimation in Line Transect Surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {58},
  number = {2},
  pages = {263--269}
}
Cherenkov, S. E. 1998 Accuracy of one-visit censuses of forest passerine birds during a breeding season Zoologichesky Zhurnal 77:474--485      
BibTeX:
@article{Cher98,
  author = {Cherenkov, S. E.},
  title = {Accuracy of one-visit censuses of forest passerine birds during a breeding season},
  journal = {Zoologichesky Zhurnal},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {474--485}
}
Chiarello, A. G. 1999 Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern Brazil Biological Conservation 89:71--82      
BibTeX:
@article{Chi99,
  author = {Chiarello, A. G.},
  title = {Effects of fragmentation of the {A}tlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern {B}razil},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {89},
  pages = {71--82}
}
Childs, J. E., Robinson, L. E., Sadek, R., Madden, A., Miranda, M. E. & Miranda, N. L. 1998 Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines Preventive Veterinary Medicine 33:207--218      
Abstract: We estimated the population density of dogs by distance sampling and assessed the potential utility of two marking methods for capture-mark-recapture applications following a mass canine rabies-vaccination campaign in Sorsogon Province, the Republic of the Philippines. Thirty villages selected to assess vaccine coverage and for dog surveys were visited 1 to 11 days after the vaccinating team. Measurements of the distance of dogs or groups of dogs from transect lines were obtained in 1088 instances (N = 1278 dogs; mean group size = 1.2). Various functions modelling the probability of detection were fitted to a truncated distribution of distances of dogs from transect lines. A hazard rate model provided the best fit and an overall estimate of dog-population density of 468/km2 (95% confidence interval, 359 to 611). At vaccination, most dogs were marked with either a paint stick or a black plastic collar. Overall, 34.8% of 2167 and 28.5% of 2115 dogs could be accurately identified as wearing a collar or showing a paint mark; 49.1% of the dogs had either mark. Increasing time interval between vaccination-team visit and dog survey and increasing distance from transect line were inversely associated with the probability of observing a paint mark. Probability of observing a collar was positively associated with increasing estimated density of the dog population in a given village and with animals not associated with a house. The data indicate that distance sampling is a relatively simple and adaptable method for estimating dog-population density and is not prone to problems associated with meeting some model assumptions inherent to mark-recapture estimators. © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Childs1998,
  author = {Childs, J. E. and Robinson, L. E. and Sadek, R. and Madden, A. and Miranda, M. E. and Miranda, N. L.},
  title = {Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines},
  journal = {Preventive Veterinary Medicine},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {207--218}
}
Clancy, T. F., Pople, A. R. & Gibson, L. A. 1997 Comparison of helicopter line transects with walked line transects for estimating densities of kangaroos Wildlife Research 24:397--409      
BibTeX:
@article{Claetal97,
  author = {Clancy, T. F. and Pople, A. R. and Gibson, L. A.},
  title = {Comparison of helicopter line transects with walked line transects for estimating densities of kangaroos},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {397--409}
}
Clark, P. J. & Evans, F. C. 1954 Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations Ecology 35:23--30      
BibTeX:
@article{ClaEva54,
  author = {Clark, P. J. and Evans, F. C.},
  title = {Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1954},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {23--30}
}
Clarke, R., Boulton, R. & Clarke, M. 2005 Estimating population size of the Black-eared Miner, with an assessment of landscape-scale habitat requirements Pacific Conservation Biology 11:174--188      
Abstract: The decline of the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis has been caused primarily by habitat degradation and vegetation clearance. To better direct conservation actions for this species there was a need to assess habitat requirements on a regional-scale and to estimate the population size using quantitative methods. We used vegetation mapping and the current distribution of the Black-eared Miner to determine regional-scale habitat requirements. These findings were combined with the results of distance sampling to provide population estimates. The species is restricted to large tracts of intact mallee in the Murray Mallee of southeastern Australia that have not been burnt for at least 45 years. The density of Black-eared Miners is highest in areas that are dominated by mallee-Triodia associations and have not been intensively grazed. The Bookmark Biosphere Reserve supports an estimated 501 (270-927, 95% Cl) colonies, containing 3 758 (2 026-6 954) phenotypically pure Black-eared Miners, 2 255 (1 215-4170) hybrids and small numbers of Yellow-throated Miners Manorina flavigula. However, the effective population size is considerably smaller (390 Black-eared Miners (210-726) and 234 hybrids (126-433)), due to a skewed adult sex ratio (1 female: 1.81 males) and complex social organization. A smaller population also persists in the Murray Sunset National Park containing 53 (32-85) Black-eared Miner/hybrid colonies. Both populations face a high risk of extinction from large-scale wildfire. The endangered status of the species under IUCN criteria remains warranted.
BibTeX:
@article{Clarke2005,
  author = {Clarke, R.H. and Boulton, R.L. and Clarke, M.F.},
  title = {Estimating population size of the Black-eared Miner, with an assessment of landscape-scale habitat requirements},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {174--188}
}
Clement, D., Slooten, D., Dawson, S. & DuFresne, S. 2001 Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Farewell Spit and Motunau  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Clement2001,
  author = {Clement, D. and Slooten, D. and Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S.},
  title = {Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Farewell Spit and Motunau},
  year = {2001},
  number = {22}
}
Coelho, L. 2009 Estimativa de densidade de aves utilizando amostragem por distâncias em uma área verde urbana  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@thesis{Coelho2009,
  author = {Liliane Coelho},
  title = {Estimativa de densidade de aves utilizando amostragem por distâncias em uma área verde urbana},
  school = {Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias},
  year = {2009}
}
Colket, B. & Church, K. E. 2005 A Comparison of Traditional Counts and Distance Sampling Methods for Estimating the Abundance of Ute Ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis)  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Colket2005,
  author = {Beth Colket and Kevin E. Church},
  title = {A Comparison of Traditional Counts and Distance Sampling Methods for Estimating the Abundance of Ute Ladies'-tresses (\textit{Spiranthes diluvialis})},
  year = {2005}
}
Compton, R., Banks, A., Goodwin, L. & Hooker, S. K. 2007 Pilot cetacean survey of the sub-Arctic North Atlantic utilizing a cruise-ship platform Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87:321--325      
BibTeX:
@article{Compton2007,
  author = {Ross Compton and Aaron Banks and Lissa Goodwin and Sascha K. Hooker},
  title = {Pilot cetacean survey of the sub-Arctic North Atlantic utilizing a cruise-ship platform},
  journal = {Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {321--325}
}
Conn, P., Arthur, A., Bailey, L. & Singleton, G. 2006 Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: Promises and pitfalls of new methods Ecological Applications 16:829--837      
Abstract: Knowledge of animal abundance is fundamental to many ecological studies. Frequently, researchers cannot determine true abundance, and so must estimate it using a method such as mark-recapture or distance sampling. Recent advances in abundance estimation allow one to model heterogeneity with individual covariates or mixture distributions and to derive multimodel abundance estimators that explicitly address uncertainty about which model parameterization best represents truth. Further, it is possible to borrow information on detection probability across several populations when data are sparse. While promising, these methods have not been evaluated using mark-recapture data from populations of known abundance, and thus far have largely been overlooked by ecologists. In this paper, we explored the utility of newly developed mark-recapture methods for estimating the abundance of 12 captive populations of wild house mice (Mus musculus). We found that mark-recapture methods employing individual covariates yielded satisfactory abundance estimates for most populations. In contrast, model sets with heterogeneity formulations consisting solely of mixture distributions did not perform well for several of the populations. We show through simulation that a higher number of trapping occasions would have been necessary to achieve good estimator performance in this case. Finally, we show that simultaneous analysis of data from low abundance populations can yield viable abundance estimates. © 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2006,
  author = {Conn, P.B. and Arthur, A.D. and Bailey, L.L. and Singleton, G.R.},
  title = {Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: Promises and pitfalls of new methods},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {16},
  number = {2},
  pages = {829--837}
}
Conn, P., Laake, J. & Johnson, D. 2012 A Hierarchical Modeling Framework for Multiple Observer Transect Surveys PLoS ONE 7:e42294   DOI   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2012,
  author = {Conn, P.B. and J.L. Laake and D.S. Johnson},
  title = {A Hierarchical Modeling Framework for Multiple Observer Transect Surveys},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {e42294},
  doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0042294}
}
Conn, P. B., Johnson, D. S., London, J. M. & Boveng, P. L. 2012 Accounting for missing data when assessing availability in animal population surveys: an application to ice-associated seals in the Bering Sea Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3:1039--1046   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{MEE3:MEE3238,
  author = {Conn, Paul B. and Johnson, Devin S. and London, Josh M. and Boveng, Peter L.},
  title = {Accounting for missing data when assessing availability in animal population surveys: an application to ice-associated seals in the Bering Sea},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1039--1046},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00238.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00238.x}
}
Conroy, M. J., Nichols, J. D. & Asanza, E. R. 1997 Métodos cuantitativos contemporáneos para entender y manejar poblaciones y comunidades animales [Contemporary quantitative methods to understand and manage animal populations and communities] Interciencia 22:247--258      
BibTeX:
@article{Conetal97,
  author = {Conroy, M. J. and Nichols, J. D. and Asanza, E. R.},
  title = {M\'etodos cuantitativos contempor\'aneos para entender y manejar poblaciones y comunidades animales [Contemporary quantitative methods to understand and manage animal populations and communities]},
  journal = {Interciencia},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {247--258}
}
Cook, J. R. & Stefanski, L. A. 1994 Simulation-extrapolation estimation in parametric measurement error models Journal of the American Statistical Association 89:1314--1328      
BibTeX:
@article{COO94,
  author = {Cook, J. R. and Stefanski, L. A.},
  title = {Simulation-extrapolation estimation in parametric measurement error models},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {89},
  pages = {1314--1328}
}
Cook, R. D. & Jacobsen, J. O. 1979 A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys Biometrics 35:735--742      
BibTeX:
@article{CooJac79,
  author = {Cook, R. D. and Jacobsen, J. O.},
  title = {A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {735--742}
}
Cooke, J. G. 2001 A modification of the radial distance method for dual-platform line transect analysis, to improve robustness  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Coo01,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {A modification of the radial distance method for dual-platform line transect analysis, to improve robustness},
  year = {2001},
  number = {Paper SC/53/IA31}
}
Cooke, J. G. 1997 An implementation of a surfacing-based approach to abundance estimation of minke whales from shipborne surveys Report of the International Whaling Commission 47:513--528      
BibTeX:
@article{Coo97,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {An implementation of a surfacing-based approach to abundance estimation of minke whales from shipborne surveys},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {513--528}
}
Cooke, J. G. 1987 Estimation of the population of minke whales in Antarctic Area IVW in 1984/85 Report of the International Whaling Commission 37:273--276      
BibTeX:
@article{Coo87,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {Estimation of the population of minke whales in {A}ntarctic {A}rea {IVW} in 1984/85},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {273--276}
}
Cooke, J. G. 1985 Notes on the estimation of whale density from line transects Report of the International Whaling Commission 35:319--323      
BibTeX:
@article{Coo85,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {Notes on the estimation of whale density from line transects},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {319--323}
}
Cooke, J. G. & Leaper, R. 1998 General modelling framework for the estimation of whale abundance from line transect surveys  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{CooLea98,
  author = {Cooke, J. G. and Leaper, R.},
  title = {General modelling framework for the estimation of whale abundance from line transect surveys},
  year = {1998},
  number = {Paper SC/50/RMP21}
}
Corn, J. L. & Conroy, M. J. 1998 Estimation of density of mongooses with capture-recapture and distance sampling Journal of Mammalogy 79:1009--1015      
Abstract: We captured mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) in live traps arranged in trapping webs in Antigua, West Indies, and used capture-recapture and distance sampling to estimate density. Distance estimation and program DISTANCE were used to provide estimates of density from the trapping-web data. Mean density based on trapping webs was 9.5 mongooses/ha (range, 5.9-10.2/ha); estimates had coefficients of variation ranging from 29.82-31.58% (bar X = 30.46%). Mark-recapture models were used to estimate abundance, which was converted to density using estimates of effective trap area. Tests of model assumptions provided by CAPTURE indicated pronounced heterogeneity in capture probabilities and some indication of behavioral response and variation over time. Mean estimated density was 1.80 mongooses/ha (range, 1.37-2.15/ha) with estimated coefficients of variation of 4.68-11.92% (bar X = 7.46%). Estimates of density based on mark-recapture data depended heavily on assumptions about animal home ranges; variances of densities also may be underestimated, leading to unrealistically narrow confidence intervals. Estimates based on trap webs require fewer assumptions, and estimated variances may be a more realistic representation of sampling variation. Because trap webs are established easily and provide adequate data for estimation in a few sample occasions, the method should be efficient and reliable for estimating densities of mongooses.
BibTeX:
@article{Corn1998,
  author = {Corn, J. L. and Conroy, M. J.},
  title = {Estimation of density of mongooses with capture-recapture and distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {79},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1009--1015}
}
Cosens, S. & Innes, S. 2000 Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern Hudson Bay in August 1995 Arctic 53:36--41     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Cosens2000,
  author = {Cosens, S.E. and Innes, S.},
  title = {Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern Hudson Bay in August 1995},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {36--41}
}
Cottam, G. & Curtis, J. T. 1956 The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling Ecology 37:451--460      
BibTeX:
@article{CotCur56,
  author = {Cottam, G. and Curtis, J. T.},
  title = {The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {451--460}
}
Coulson, G. 1993 Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western gray kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus Wildlife Research 20:137--149      
BibTeX:
@article{Cou93,
  author = {Coulson, G.},
  title = {Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western gray kangaroo, \emph{{M}acropus fuliginosus}},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {137--149}
}
Coulson, G. M. & Raines, J. A. 1985 Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations Australian Wildlife Research 12:119--125      
BibTeX:
@article{CouRai85,
  author = {Coulson, G. M. and Raines, J. A.},
  title = {Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {119--125}
}
Cowling, A. 1998 Spatial methods for line transect surveys Biometrics 54:828--839      
BibTeX:
@article{Cow98,
  author = {Cowling, A.},
  title = {Spatial methods for line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {828--839}
}
Cox, M. J., Borchers, D. L., Demer, D. A., Cutter, G. R. & Brierley, A. S. 2011 Estimating the density of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from multi-beam echo-sounder observations using distance sampling methods Applied Statistics 60:301--316      
BibTeX:
@article{Cox2011,
  author = {Martin J. Cox and David L. Borchers and David A. Demer and George R. Cutter and Andrew S. Brierley},
  title = {Estimating the density of Antarctic krill (\textit{Euphausia superba}) from multi-beam echo-sounder observations using distance sampling methods},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {301--316}
}
Cox, T. F. 1976 The robust estimation of the density of a forest stand using a new conditioned distance method Biometrika 63:493--500      
BibTeX:
@article{Cox76,
  author = {Cox, T. F.},
  title = {The robust estimation of the density of a forest stand using a new conditioned distance method},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {493--500}
}
Crain, B. R. 1998 Some comments on line transect grouped data analysis Ecological Modelling 109:243--249      
BibTeX:
@article{Cra98,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some comments on line transect grouped data analysis},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {243--249}
}
Crain, B. R. 1998 Window sensitivity functions for line transect sampling Environmental Management 22:471--481      
BibTeX:
@article{Cra98b,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Window sensitivity functions for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {471--481}
}
Crain, B. R. 1974 Estimation of distributions using orthogonal expansions The Annals of Statistics 2:454--463      
BibTeX:
@article{Cra74,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Estimation of distributions using orthogonal expansions},
  journal = {The Annals of Statistics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {454--463}
}
Crain, B. R., Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. & Laake, J. L. 1979 Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using Fourier series Biometrical Journal 21:731--748      
BibTeX:
@article{Craetal79,
  author = {Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R., and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using {F}ourier series},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {731--748}
}
Crain, B. R., Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. & Laake, J. L. 1978 A Fourier Series Estimator of Population Density for Line Transect Sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@book{Craetal78,
  author = {Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {A {F}ourier Series Estimator of Population Density for Line Transect Sampling},
  publisher = {Utah State University Press},
  year = {1978}
}
Crase, B., Duguid, A., Pengart, R. N., Jakamarra, P. W., Angal, L. P. & adn Aggie Woods Kemarr, M. S. P. 2010 Distribution and conservation status of the Giant Sweet Potato, a rare Aboriginal food plant from Central Australia Northern Territory Naturalist 22:17--30      
BibTeX:
@article{Crase2010,
  author = {Beth Crase and Angus Duguid and Raymond Nelson Pengart and Paddy Willis Jakamarra and Laurie Price Angal and Margaret Scobie Pengart adn Aggie Woods Kemarr},
  title = {Distribution and conservation status of the Giant Sweet Potato, a rare Aboriginal food plant from Central Australia},
  journal = {Northern Territory Naturalist},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {17--30}
}
Crespo, E. A., Pedraza, S. N., Grandi, M. F., Dans, S. L. & Garaffo, G. V. 2010 Abundance and distribution of endangered Franciscana dolphins in Argentine waters and conservation implications Marine Mammal Science 26:17--35   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Crespo2010,
  author = {Crespo, Enrique A. and Pedraza, Susana N. and Grandi, M. Florencia and Dans, Silvana L. and Garaffo, Griselda V.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of endangered Franciscana dolphins in Argentine waters and conservation implications},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {17--35},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00313.x}
}
Cuarón, A. D., Martínez-Morales, M. A., McFadden, K. W., Valenzuela, D. & Gompper, M. E. 2004 The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico Biodiversity and Conservation 13:317--331     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Cuaron2004,
  author = {Cuar{\'o}n, A. D. and Mart{\'i}nez-Morales, M. A. and McFadden, K. W. and Valenzuela, D. and Gompper, M. E.},
  title = {The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {317--331}
}
Dörgeloh, W. G. 2005 Density estimates of francolin in a Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna using distance sampling South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35:89--94      
Abstract: The status and ecology of francolin in the savanna biome has not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the line transect method to estimate population densities of three francolin species, Swainson's spurfowl, crested and Natal francolin. Surveys were conducted in Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Relative species composition showed 75.7% Swainson's spurfowl, 16.9% crested and 7.4% Natal francolin. Early morning counts within two hours of sunrise, when temperatures are low and with no wind or cloud cover, revealed the best results. Detectability was estimated as 85.6%. The Uniform Simple polynomial model was selected based on the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values. Population density of all three species combined was estimated as 6.76 francolin/ha with an encounter rate of 32.24 francolin/km. A coefficient of variation of 23.57% and a poor model fit (AIC 1650.28; GOF i^2 P = 0.024) indicated that the line transect method may not be a suitable method to count francolin in this plant community. However, this method may be improved to some extent by including additional lines to increase replication, stratifying the study area into low- and high-density units, and including the adjacent Nyl floodplain into the survey. This study suggests a need to improve the line transect method and to investigate other counting techniques to assist in monitoring these species.
BibTeX:
@article{Dorgeloh2005,
  author = {D{\"o}rgeloh, W. G.},
  title = {Density estimates of francolin in a \textit{Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis} {S}avanna using distance sampling},
  journal = {South African Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {35},
  number = {1},
  pages = {89--94}
}
Dahlheim, M., York, A., Towell, R., Waite, J. & Breiwick, J. 2000 Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance in Alaska: Bristol Bay to Southeast Alaska, 1991-1993 Marine Mammal Science 16:28--45      
BibTeX:
@article{Dahetal00,
  author = {Dahlheim, M. and York, A. and Towell, R. and Waite, J. and Breiwick, J.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise (\emph{{P}hocoena phocoena}) abundance in {A}laska: {B}ristol {B}ay to {S}outheast {A}laska, 1991-1993},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {28--45}
}
Dallimer, M. & King, T. 2007 Habitat preferences of the forest birds on the island of Príncipe, Gulf of Guinea African Journal of Ecology 46:258--266     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Dallimer2007,
  author = {Martin Dallimer and Tony King},
  title = {Habitat preferences of the forest birds on the island of Príncipe, Gulf of Guinea},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {258--266}
}
Dallimer, M., King, T. & Atkinson, R. J. 2009 Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, West Africa Animal Conservation 12:209--219      
BibTeX:
@article{Dallimer2009,
  author = {Dallimer, M. and King, T. and Atkinson, R. J.},
  title = {Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, West Africa},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {209--219}
}
Dallimer, M., Melo, M., Collar, N. J. & Jones, P. J. 2010 The Príncipe Thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, "Critically Endangered", forest flagship species Bird Conservation International First View:1-7   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{CambridgeJournals:7852429,
  author = {Dallimer, Martin And Melo, Martim And Collar, Nigel J. And Jones, Peter J.},
  title = {The Príncipe Thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, "Critically Endangered", forest flagship species},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {First View},
  number = { },
  pages = {1-7},
  url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7852429&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0959270910000390},
  doi = {10.1017/S0959270910000390}
}
Daniel, A., Holechek, J., Valdez, R., Tembo, A., Saiwana, L., Fusco, M. & Cardenas, M. 1993 Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition Chihuahuan desert range Journal of Range Management 46:524--528      
BibTeX:
@article{Danetal93,
  author = {Daniel, A. and Holechek, J. and Valdez, R. and Tembo, A. and Saiwana, L. and Fusco, M. and Cardenas, M. },
  title = {Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition {C}hihuahuan desert range},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {524--528}
}
Dawson, D. G. 1981 Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :12--16      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Daw81,
  author = {Dawson, D. G.},
  title = {Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {12--16}
}
Dawson, S., DuFresne, S., Slooten, E. & Wade, P. 2000 Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Motunau and Timaru  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dawson2000,
  author = {Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S. and Slooten, E. and P. Wade},
  title = {Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Motunau and Timaru},
  year = {2000},
  number = {3072}
}
Dawson, S., Slooten, E., DuFresne, S., Wade, P. & Clement, D. 2004 Small-boat surveys for coastal dolphins: Line-transect surveys for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) Fishery Bulletin 102:441--451     PDF  
Abstract: Management of coastal species of small cetaceans is often impeded by a lack of robust estimates of their abundance. In the Austral summers of 1997-98, 1998-99, and 1999-2000 we conducted line-transect surveys of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) abundance off the north, east, and south coasts of the South Island of New Zealand. Survey methods were modified for the use of a 15-m sailing catamaran, which was equipped with a collapsible sighting platform giving observers an eye-height of 6 m. Eighty-six percent of 2061 km of survey effort was allocated to inshore waters (4 nautical miles [nmi] or 7.4 km from shore), and the remainder to offshore waters (4-10 nmi or 7.4-18.5 km from shore). Transects were placed at 45° to the shore and spaced apart by 1, 2, 4, or 8 nmi according to pre-existing data on dolphin density. Survey effort within strata was uniform. Detection functions for sheltered waters and open coasts were fitted separately for each survey. The effect of attraction of dolphins to the survey vessel and the fraction of dolphins missed on the trackline were assessed with simultaneous boat and helicopter surveys in January 1999. Hector's dolphin abundance in the coastal zone to 4 nmi offshore was calculated at 1880 individuals (CV=15.7%, log-normal 95% CI=1384-2554). These surveys are the first line-transect surveys for cetaceans in New Zealand's coastal waters.
BibTeX:
@article{Dawetal04,
  author = {Dawson, S. and Slooten, E. and DuFresne, S. and Wade, P. and Clement, D.},
  title = {Small-boat surveys for coastal dolphins: Line-transect surveys for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori)},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {102},
  number = {3},
  pages = {441--451}
}
Dawson, S., Wade, P., Slooten, E. & Barlow, J. 2008 Design and field methods for sighting surveys of cetaceans in coastal and riverine habitats Mammal Review 38:19-49   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{DawsonJanuary2008,
  author = {Dawson, Steve and Wade, Paul and Slooten, Elisabeth and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Design and field methods for sighting surveys of cetaceans in coastal and riverine habitats},
  journal = {Mammal Review},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {19-49},
  url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/mam/2008/00000038/00000001/art00002},
  doi = {doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00119.x}
}
De Boer, M. N., Leaper, R., Keith, S. & Simmonds, M. P. 2008 Winter abundance estimates for the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the western approaches of the English Channel and the effect of responsive movement Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 1:14--20     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{DeBoer2008,
  author = {De Boer, M. N. and Leaper, R and Keith, S. and Simmonds, M. P.},
  title = {Winter abundance estimates for the common dolphin (\textit{Delphinus delphis}) in the western approaches of the {English Channel} and the effect of responsive movement},
  journal = {Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {14--20}
}
DeJong, M. J. & Emlen, J. T. 1985 The shape of the auditory detection function and its implication for songbird censusing Journal of Field Ornithology 56:213--223     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{DejEml85,
  author = {DeJong, M. J. and Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {The shape of the auditory detection function and its implication for songbird censusing},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {213--223}
}
DeMaster, D. P., Lowry, L. F. & Frost, K. J. 2001 The effect of sea state on estimates of abundance for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Norton Sound, Alaska Fishery Bulletin 99:197--201     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{DeMaster2001,
  author = {Douglas P. DeMaster and Lloyd F. Lowry and Kathryn J. Frost},
  title = {The effect of sea state on estimates of abundance for beluga whales (\textit{{D}elphinapterus leucas}) in {N}orton {S}ound, {A}laska},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {197--201}
}
DeSante, D. F. 1981 A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing technique in a California coastal scrub breeding bird community Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :177--185      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Des81,
  author = {DeSante, D. F.},
  title = {A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing technique in a {C}alifornia coastal scrub breeding bird community},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {177--185}
}
DeSante, D. F. 1986 A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a Sierran subalpine forest habitat Condor 88:129--142     PDF  
Review: São realizadas primeiro amostragens intensivas pelo método dos mapas para determinar as densidades "verdadeiras" com as quais se comparam as obtidas por VCP.
O VCP é mausinho.
Exemplo de como o tempo não instantaneo e o movimento levam a sobreestimação.
Exemplo dos erros de distâncias.
Exemplo de vocalizações ventriculares.
Diz que os point counts podem ser bons (mas é tolo, porque o habitat é muito semelhante)
Artigo analisado no DSB (pag.311)
BibTeX:
@article{Des86,
  author = {DeSante, D. F.},
  title = {A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a {S}ierran subalpine forest habitat},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {129--142},
  note = {ID240}
}
Desbiez, A. & Tomas, W. M. 2003 Aplicabilidade do método de amostragem de distâncias em levantamentos de médios e grandes vertebrados no Pantana  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Desbiez2003,
  author = {Arnaud Desbiez and Walfrido Moraes Tomas},
  title = {Aplicabilidade do método de amostragem de distâncias em levantamentos de médios e grandes vertebrados no Pantana},
  year = {2003}
}
DeVries, P. G. 1979 A generalization of the Hayne-type estimator as an application of line intercept sampling Biometrics 35:743--748      
BibTeX:
@article{Dev79,
  author = {DeVries, P. G.},
  title = {A generalization of the {H}ayne-type estimator as an application of line intercept sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {743--748}
}
Devy, M. S., Ganesh, T. & Davidar, P. 1998 Patterns of butterfly distribution in the Andaman islands: implications for conservation Acta Oecologica 19:527--534      
BibTeX:
@article{Devetal98,
  author = {Devy, M. S. and Ganesh, T. and Davidar, P.},
  title = {Patterns of butterfly distribution in the {A}ndaman islands: implications for conservation},
  journal = {Acta Oecologica},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {527--534}
}
DeYoung, C. A., Guthery, F. S., Beasom, S. L., Coughlin, S. P. & Heffelfinger, J. R. 1989 Improving estimates of white-tailed deer abundance from helicopter surveys Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:275--279      
BibTeX:
@article{Deyetal89,
  author = {DeYoung, C. A. and Guthery, F. S. and Beasom, S. L. and Coughlin, S. P. and Heffelfinger, J. R.},
  title = {Improving estimates of white-tailed deer abundance from helicopter surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {275--279}
}
Dick, D. M. & Hines, E. M. 2011 Using distance sampling techniques to estimate bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance at Turneffe Atoll, Belize Marine Mammal Science 27:606--621   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{MMS:MMS435,
  author = {Dick, Dorothy M. and Hines, Ellen M.},
  title = {Using distance sampling techniques to estimate bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance at Turneffe Atoll, Belize},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {27},
  number = {3},
  pages = {606--621},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00435.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00435.x}
}
Dickinson, H. & Fa, J. 2000 Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi) Journal of Zoology 251:187--197      
Abstract: The whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus vanzoi is a large-bodied teiid found only on two islands (Maria Major and Maria Minor), off St Lucia, West Indies. In May 1995, 42 lizards from Maria Major were introduced to the smaller uninhabited Praslin Island on the same coastline. Three years post-release, we studied abundance, demography and morphometrics of the translocated lizard population, during a 6-month period covering wet and dry seasons. Age, sex, snout-vent length (SVL), body mass (BM), tail length, tail regeneration, and overall condition (moulting, reproductive condition, cuts, external parasites) of 107 animals caught during the study are analysed in the present paper. Comparisons are also made with the source population. A body condition index (CI (BM/SVL)), sex ratio (adult males: adult females), age ratio (adults: juveniles), and sexual size dimorphism ratio (SVL adult male: SVL adult females) were calculated for the study population. Distance sampling and mark-re-sight surveys were used to estimate population size and lizard density. A total of 155 ± 26 individuals were estimated. The lizard population was found to have a high growth rate (r = 0.97-3.95). There were significant seasonal changes in lizard abundance. Seasonal differences in lizard numbers, BM and CI suggest either severe resource limitation during the dry season, or selective aestivation. A high frequency of tail autotomy may point to intense intraspecific competition as the island is relatively free from main predators such as the black rat Rattus rattus. Sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism and sexual dichromatism all indicate a territorial species in a generally non-territorial family (Teiidae). Some adult males seem to maintain juvenile colours. It is suggested that the introduced population has successfully colonized its new environment and that no significant change in the animals condition or size has occurred during the 3 years since translocation.
BibTeX:
@article{Dickinson2000,
  author = {Dickinson, H.C. and Fa, J.E.},
  title = {Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards \textit{(Cnemidophorus vanzoi)}},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {251},
  number = {2},
  pages = {187--197}
}
Diefenbach, D. R., Brauning, D. W. & Mattice, J. A. 2003 Variability in grassland bird counts related to observer differences and species detection rates The Auk 120:1168--1179     PDF  
Abstract: Differences among observers in ability to detect and identify birds has been long recognized as a potential source of error when surveying terrestrial birds. However, few published studies address that issue in their methods or study design. We used distance sampling with line transects to investigate differences in detection probabilities among observers and among three species of grassland songbirds: Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), Grasshopper Sparrow (A. savannarum), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our review of 75 papers published in 1985-2001 found that the most commonly used methods were fixed-width transects (31%, 23 papers) and fixed-radius point counts (20%, 15 papers). The median half-width of fixed-width strip transects used by researchers was 50 m, but our results indicated detection probabilities were <1.0 at distances >25 m for most observers and species. Beyond 50 m from the transect line, we found that as many as 60% of birds were missed by observers and that the proportion missed differed among observers and species. Detection probabilities among observers ranged from 0.43 to 1.00 for Henslow's Sparrow, from 0.44 to 0.66 for Grasshopper Sparrow, and from 0.60 to 0.72 for Grasshopper Sparrow for birds detected within 58-100 m of the transect line. Using our estimates of detection probabilities for Henslow's Sparrows among six observers in a computer simulation of a monitoring program, we found that bird counts from fixed-width transects required an additional 2-3 years of monitoring to detect a given decline in abundance compared to density estimates that used a method to correct for missed birds. We recommend that researchers employ survey methods that correct for detection probabilities <1.0.
BibTeX:
@article{Diefenbach2003,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Brauning, D. W. and Mattice, J. A.},
  title = {Variability in grassland bird counts related to observer differences and species detection rates},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {120},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1168--1179}
}
Diefenbach, D. R., Finley, J. C., Luloff, A. E., Stedman, R., Swope, C. B., Zinn, H. C. & San Julian, G. J. 2005 Bear and deer hunter density and distribution on public land in Pennsylvania Human Dimensions of Wildlife 10:201--212      
Review: Really nice data recording device
Interesting case of use of distance for human populations
BibTeX:
@article{Dieetal05,
  author = {Diefenbach, D R and Finley, J C and Luloff, A E and Stedman, R and Swope, C B and Zinn, H C and San Julian, G J},
  title = {Bear and deer hunter density and distribution on public land in {P}ennsylvania},
  journal = {Human Dimensions of Wildlife},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {201--212}
}
Diefenbach, D. R., Marshal, M. R., Mattice, J. A. & Brauning, D. W. 2007 Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance The Auk 124:      
Review: Very interesting, practical example showing how density estimates might be biased low if availability is ignored
BibTeX:
@article{Dieetal07,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Marshal, M. R. and Mattice, J. A. and Brauning, D. W.},
  title = {Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {124},
  number = {1}
}
Diggle, P. J. 1977 A note on robust density estimation for spatial point patterns Biometrika 64:91--95      
BibTeX:
@article{Dig77,
  author = {Diggle, P. J.},
  title = {A note on robust density estimation for spatial point patterns},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {91--95}
}
Diggle, P. J. 1975 Robust density estimation using distance methods Biometrika 62:39--48      
BibTeX:
@article{Dig75,
  author = {Diggle, P. J.},
  title = {Robust density estimation using distance methods},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {39--48}
}
Dique, D., De Villiers, D. & Preece, H. 2003 Evaluation of line-transect sampling for estimating koala abundance in the Pine Rivers Shire, south-east Queensland Wildlife Research 30:127--133      
Abstract: Distance sampling using line transects has not been previously used or tested for estimating koala abundance. In July 2001, a pilot survey was conducted to compare the use of line transects with strip transects for estimating koala abundance. Both methods provided a similar estimate of density. On the basis of the results of the pilot survey, the distribution and abundance of koalas in the Pine Rivers Shire, south-east Queensland, was determined using line-transect sampling. In total, 134 lines (length 64 km) were used to sample bushland areas. Eighty-two independent koalas were sighted. Analysis of the frequency distribution of sighting distances using the software program DISTANCE enabled a global detection function to be estimated for survey sites in bushland areas across the Shire. Abundance in urban parts of the Shire was estimated from densities obtained from total counts at eight urban sites that ranged from 26 to 51 ha in size. Koala abundance in the Pine Rivers Shire was estimated at 4584 (95% confidence interval, 4040-5247). Line-transect sampling is a useful method for estimating koala abundance provided experienced koala observers arc used when conducting surveys.
BibTeX:
@article{Dique2003,
  author = {Dique, D.S. and De Villiers, D.L. and Preece, H.J.},
  title = {Evaluation of line-transect sampling for estimating koala abundance in the Pine Rivers Shire, south-east Queensland},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {127--133}
}
Dique, D., Preece, H. & de Villliers, D. 2003 Koalas in Pine Rivers Shire: distribution, abundance and management  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dique2003b,
  author = {Dique, D. and Preece, H. and de Villliers, D.},
  title = {Koalas in Pine Rivers Shire: distribution, abundance and management},
  year = {2003}
}
DiTraglia, F. J. 2007 Models of random wildlife movement with an application to distance sampling  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{DiTraglia2007,
  author = {Francis J. DiTraglia},
  title = {Models of random wildlife movement with an application to distance sampling},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2007}
}
Dobkin, D. S. & Rich, A. C. 1998 Comparison of line transect, spot map, and point count surveys for birds in riparian habitats of the Great Basin Journal of Field Ornithology 69:430--443      
BibTeX:
@article{DobRic98,
  author = {Dobkin, D. S. and Rich, A. C.},
  title = {Comparison of line transect, spot map, and point count surveys for birds in riparian habitats of the {G}reat {B}asin},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {430--443}
}
Dodd, C. K. 1990 Line transect estimation of Red Hills salamander burrow density using a Fourier series Copeia :555--557      
BibTeX:
@article{Dod90,
  author = {Dodd, C. K.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of {R}ed {H}ills salamander burrow density using a {F}ourier series},
  journal = {Copeia},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {555--557}
}
Dohl, T. P., Bonnell, M. L. & Ford, R. G. 1986 Distribution and abundance of common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, in the Southern California Bight: a quantitative assessment based upon aerial transect data Fishery Bulletin 84:333--343      
BibTeX:
@article{Dohetal,
  author = {Dohl, T. P. and Bonnell, M. L. and Ford, R. G.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of common dolphin, \emph{{D}elphinus delphis}, in the {S}outhern {C}alifornia {B}ight: a quantitative assessment based upon aerial transect data},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {84},
  pages = {333--343}
}
Doi, T. 1974 Further development of whale sighting theory The Whale Problem: a Status Report :359--368      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Doi74,
  author = {Doi, T.},
  title = {Further development of whale sighting theory},
  booktitle = {The Whale Problem: a Status Report},
  publisher = {Harvard University Press},
  year = {1974},
  pages = {359--368}
}
Doi, T. 1971 Further development of sighting theory on whales Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 68:1--22      
BibTeX:
@article{Doi71,
  author = {Doi, T.},
  title = {Further development of sighting theory on whales},
  journal = {Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {1--22}
}
Doi, T., Kasamatsu, F. & Nakano, T. 1983 Further simulation studies on sighting by introducing both concentration of sighting effort by angle and aggregations of minke whales in the Antarctic Report of the International Whaling Commission 33:403--412      
BibTeX:
@article{Doietal83,
  author = {Doi, T. and Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T.},
  title = {Further simulation studies on sighting by introducing both concentration of sighting effort by angle and aggregations of minke whales in the {A}ntarctic},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {403--412}
}
Doi, T., Kasamatsu, F. & Nakano, T. 1982 A simulation study on sighting survey of minke whales in the Antarctic Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:919--928      
BibTeX:
@article{Doietal82,
  author = {Doi, T. and Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T.},
  title = {A simulation study on sighting survey of minke whales in the {A}ntarctic},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {919--928}
}
Donadio, E., Di Martino, S., Aubone, M. & Novaro, A. J. 2004 Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia Journal of Arid Environments 56:709--718      
BibTeX:
@article{Donadio2004,
  author = {Donadio, E. and Di Martino, S. and Aubone, M. and Novaro, A. J.},
  title = {Feeding ecology of the {A}ndean hog-nosed skunk (\textit{Conepatus chinga}) in areas under different land use in north-western {P}atagonia},
  journal = {Journal of Arid Environments},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {56},
  number = {4},
  pages = {709--718}
}
Drummer, T. D. 1999 Planning abundance estimation surveys when detectability is $<$1.0 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :67--73      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Dru99,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Planning abundance estimation surveys when detectability is $<$1.0},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {67--73}
}
Drummer, T. D. 1997 Size-bias in line transect sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Dru85,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Size-bias in line transect sampling},
  school = {University of Wyoming},
  year = {1997},
  number = {Laramie, WY, USA}
}
Drummer, T. D. 1991 SIZETRAN: analysis of size-biased line transect data Wildlife Society Bulletin 19:117--118      
BibTeX:
@article{Dru91,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {SIZETRAN: analysis of size-biased line transect data},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {117--118}
}
Drummer, T. D. 1990 Estimation of proportions and ratios from line transect data Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods 19:3069--3091      
BibTeX:
@article{Dru90,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Estimation of proportions and ratios from line transect data},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {3069--3091}
}
Drummer, T. D., Degange, A. R., Pank, L. L. & McDonald, L. L. 1990 Adjusting for group size influence in line transect sampling Journal of Wildlife Management 54:511--514      
BibTeX:
@article{Druetal90,
  author = {Drummer, T. D. and Degange, A. R. and Pank, L. L. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Adjusting for group size influence in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {511--514}
}
Drummer, T. D. & McDonald, L. L. 1987 Size bias in line transect sampling Biometrics 43:13--21      
BibTeX:
@article{DruMcD87,
  author = {Drummer, T. D. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Size bias in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {13--21}
}
Duffy, D. C. & Schneider, D. C. 1984 A comparison of two transect methods of counting birds at sea Cormorant 12:95--98      
BibTeX:
@article{DufSch84,
  author = {Duffy, D. C. and Schneider, D. C.},
  title = {A comparison of two transect methods of counting birds at sea},
  journal = {Cormorant},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {95--98}
}
Du Fresne, S., Fletcher, D. & Sawson, S. 2006 The effect of line-transect placement in a coastal distance sampling survey Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:79--85     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Du2006,
  author = {Du Fresne, S. and Fletcher, D. and Sawson, S.},
  title = {The effect of line-transect placement in a coastal distance sampling survey},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {79--85}
}
Dunn, E. H., Bart, J., Collins, B. T., Craig, B., Dale, B., Downes, C. M., Francis, C. M., Woodley, S. & Zorn, P. 2006 Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dunn2006,
  author = {Erica H. Dunn and Jon Bart and Brian T. Collins and Brian Craig and Brenda Dale and Connie M. Downes and Charles M. Francis and Stephen Woodley and Paul Zorn},
  title = {Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas},
  year = {2006}
}
Durant, S. M., Craft, M. E., Hilborn, R., Bashir, S., Hando, J. & Thomas, L. 2011 Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania Journal of Applied Ecology 48:1490--1500   DOI URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Durant2011,
  author = {Durant, Sarah M. and Craft, Meggan E. and Hilborn, Ray and Bashir, Sultana and Hando, Justin and Thomas, Len},
  title = {Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {1490--1500},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02042.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02042.x}
}
Eberhardt, L. L. 1979 Line-transects based on right-angle distances Journal of Wildlife Management 43:768--774      
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe79,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Line-transects based on right-angle distances},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {768--774}
}
Eberhardt, L. L. 1978 Transect methods for population studies Journal of Wildlife Management 42:1--31      
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe78,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Transect methods for population studies},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {1--31}
}
Eberhardt, L. L. 1978 Appraising variability in population studies Journal of Wildlife Management 42:207--238      
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe78b,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Appraising variability in population studies},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {207--238}
}
Eberhardt, L. L. 1968 A preliminary appraisal of line transect Journal of Wildlife Management 32:82--88      
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe68,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {A preliminary appraisal of line transect},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {82--88}
}
Eberhardt, L. L. 1967 Some developments in `distance sampling'. Biometrics 23:207--216      
BibTeX:
@article{Eberhardt1967,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Some developments in `distance sampling'.},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {23},
  number = {2},
  pages = {207--216}
}
Eberhardt, L. L., Chapman, D. G. & Gilbert, J. R. 1979 A review of marine mammal census methods Wildlife Monographs 63:1--46      
BibTeX:
@article{Ebeetal79,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L. and Chapman, D. G. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {A review of marine mammal census methods},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {1--46}
}
Edwards, D. K., Dorsey, G. L. & Crawford, J. A. 1981 A comparison of three avian census methods Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :170--176      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Edwetal81,
  author = {Edwards, D. K. and Dorsey, G. L. and Crawford, J. A.},
  title = {A comparison of three avian census methods},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {170--176}
}
Efford, M. 2008 Book Review: Advanced Distance Sampling. Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations Environmental Conservation 35:187--192      
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2008,
  author = {Murray Efford},
  title = {Book Review: Advanced Distance Sampling. Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations},
  journal = {Environmental Conservation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {187--192}
}
Efford, M. G. 2004 Density estimation in live-trapping studies Oikos 106:598--610     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2004a,
  author = {Efford, M. G},
  title = {Density estimation in live-trapping studies},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {106},
  pages = {598--610}
}
Efford, M. G. & Dawson, D. K. 2009 Effect of distance-related heterogeneity on population size estimates from point counts The Auk 126:100--111      
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2009,
  author = {Murray G. Efford and Deanna K. Dawson},
  title = {Effect of distance-related heterogeneity on population size estimates from point counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {100--111}
}
Efford, M. G., Dawson, D. K. & Robbins, C. S. 2004 DENSITY: software for analysing capture-recapture data from passive detector arrays Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27:217--228      
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2004,
  author = {Efford, M. G. and Dawson, D. K. and Robbins, C. S.},
  title = {{DENSITY}: software for analysing capture-recapture data from passive detector arrays},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {217--228}
}
Efford, M. G., Warburton, B., Coleman, M. C. & Barker, R. J. 2005 A field test of two methods for density estimation Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:731--738     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2005,
  author = {Efford, M G and Warburton, B and Coleman, M C and Barker, R J},
  title = {A field test of two methods for density estimation},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {731--738}
}
Eidous, O. 2006 A Semiparametric Model for Line Transect Sampling Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 35:1211 - 1221      
Review: Neste paper o autor apresenta um estimador semi paramétrico com base em kernels + um modelo paramétrico (half-normal). Tem um certo paralelismo com o key+series adjustments a que estou habituado. O estimador apresentado é, regra geral, menos enviesado e mais eficiente que o estimador kernel tradicional, embora não sejam feitas comparações em situações em que o modelo verdadeiro da função de detecção é conhecido - note-se no entanto, e o autor refere isso mesmo, que não é facil comparar um estimador deste genero com um em que a forma da função de detecção verdadeira seja conhecida, pois nesse caso o simples modelo paramétrico verdadeiro deverá sempre ser melhor que qualquer outro método.
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2006,
  author = {Omar Eidous},
  title = {A Semiparametric Model for Line Transect Sampling},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1211 - 1221}
}
Eidous, O. M. 2005 Bias correction for histogram estimator using line transect sampling Environmetrics 16:61--69      
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005,
  author = {Omar M. Eidous},
  title = {Bias correction for histogram estimator using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {61--69}
}
Eidous, O. M. 2005 Histogram and polygon methods using line transect sampling Journal of Applied Statistical Science 14:25--36      
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005a,
  author = {Omar M. Eidous},
  title = {Histogram and polygon methods using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistical Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {25--36}
}
Eidous, O. M. 2005 On improving kernel estimators using line transect sampling. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 34:931-941      
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005b,
  author = {Eidous, O. M.},
  title = {On improving kernel estimators using line transect sampling.},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {931-941}
}
Ekblom, R. 2010 Evaluation of the analysis of distance sampling data: a simulation study Ornis Svecica 20:45--53     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{EKBLOM2010,
  author = {Robert Ekblom},
  title = {Evaluation of the analysis of distance sampling data: a simulation study},
  journal = {Ornis Svecica},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {45--53}
}
Ellingson, A. R. & Lukacs, P. M. 2003 Improving methods for regional landbird monitoring: a reply to Hutto and Young Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:896--902      
BibTeX:
@article{EliLuk03,
  author = {Ellingson, A R and Lukacs, P M},
  title = {Improving methods for regional landbird monitoring: a reply to {H}utto and {Y}oung},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {896--902}
}
Ellis, A. M. & Bernard, R. T. F. 2005 Estimating the density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in subtropical thicket using line transect surveys of dung and DISTANCE software African Journal of Ecology 43:362-368(7)   DOI URL    
Abstract: Many ecotourism reserves in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa have introduced large carnivores which prey on ungulates such as kudu. Kudu occupy thick vegetation and helicopter-based counts are not appropriate. In this study we tested line transect counts of faecal pellets in conjunction with DISTANCE analysis as a method for assessing the abundance of kudu. Transects were undertaken in three regions of two game reserves and the results compared with helicopter based game counts (for two regions) and a known kudu population in the third region (an enclosed breeding centre). Estimates of kudu abundance were two to three times greater than the helicopter counts, but within the known number of kudu in the breeding centre. The increased accuracy in the breeding centre was probably because the transects covered a greater percentage of the available habitat (0.07%) than in the reserves (approximately 0.007%). We suggest that DISTANCE software and line transects counts of pellet groups can be used for kudu and probably for other ungulates in thicket-type vegetations. Accuracy will depend on the percentage of the available habitat that is surveyed and on the accuracy of the defecation and decay rates.
BibTeX:
@article{Ellis&Bernard2005,
  author = {Ellis, Amanda M. and Bernard, Richard T. F.},
  title = {Estimating the density of kudu {(\textit{Tragelaphus strepsiceros}) in subtropical thicket using line transect surveys of dung and DISTANCE software}},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {362-368(7)},
  url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/afje/2005/00000043/00000004/art00011},
  doi = {doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00591.x}
}
Elphick, C. S. 2008 How you count counts: the importance of methods research in applied ecology Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1313--1320      
BibTeX:
@article{Elphick2008,
  author = {Chris S. Elphick},
  title = {How you count counts: the importance of methods research in applied ecology},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1313--1320}
}
Emlen, J. T. 1977 Estimating breeding season bird densities from transect counts The Auk 94:455--468      
BibTeX:
@article{Eml77,
  author = {Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {Estimating breeding season bird densities from transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {455--468}
}
Emlen, J. T. 1971 Population densities of birds derived from transect counts The Auk 88:323--342      
BibTeX:
@article{Eml71,
  author = {Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {Population densities of birds derived from transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {323--342}
}
Emlen, J. T. & DeJong, M. J. 1981 The application of song detection threshold distance to census operations Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :346--352      
BibTeX:
@incollection{EmlDej81,
  author = {Emlen, J. T. and DeJong, M. J.},
  title = {The application of song detection threshold distance to census operations},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {346--352}
}
Engeman, R., Nielson, R. & Sugihara, R. 2005 Evaluation of optimized variable area transect sampling using totally enumerated field data sets Environmetrics 16:767--772      
Abstract: Plotless density estimators (PDEs) can be efficient alternatives to quadrat sampling for estimating the density of stationary objects. Variable area transect (VAT) sampling had been identified, and optimized relative to effort, in previous Monte Carlo simulated population studies as a low-labor field method that demonstrated superior estimation properties among many PDEs considered. However, natural populations tend to be much more complex and less predictable in spatial distribution than computer generated populations. Therefore, we carried out a Monte Carlo simulation study that used 17 fully enumerated field populations rather than simulated populations. These natural populations represented a variety of population densities and spatial patterns. We focused on assessing the effect of the number of population members searched for along each transect (r), sample size, and transect width on estimation quality. Using relative root mean-squared error and relative bias as criteria, the optimal range for r was 5 to 7 population members encountered from each start point. Sample size was best if n > 20, but returns in estimation quality diminished by n = 40. Transect width was previously uninvestigated and found to be the most important design factor affecting estimation quality. Field studies should strive for transects as wide as logistically reasonable.
BibTeX:
@article{Engeman2005,
  author = {Engeman, R.M. and Nielson, R.M. and Sugihara, R.T.},
  title = {Evaluation of optimized variable area transect sampling using totally enumerated field data sets},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16},
  number = {7},
  pages = {767--772}
}
Ensign, W. E., Angermeier, P. L. & Dolloff, C. A. 1995 Use of line transect methods to estimate abundance of benthic stream fishes Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 52:213--222      
Abstract: Examination of the distribution of sighting distances for the Roanoke darter Percina roanoka, Roanoke logperch P. rex and black jumprock Moxostoma cervinum indicates that strip transect sighting models that assume probability of sighting remaining constant out to the limits of observer visibility are not appropriate for these benthic species. Distance sampling models that assume decreased sighting probability with increasing distance of the target from the observer provide a reasonable alternative to strip transect sighting models. -from Authors
BibTeX:
@article{Ensign1995,
  author = {Ensign, W. E. and Angermeier, P. L. and Dolloff, C. A.},
  title = {Use of line transect methods to estimate abundance of benthic stream fishes},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries \& Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {52},
  number = {1},
  pages = {213--222}
}
Epperly, S. P., Braun, J. & Chester, A. J. 1995 Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters Fishery Bulletin 93:254--261      
BibTeX:
@article{Eppetal95,
  author = {Epperly, S. P. and Braun, J. and Chester, A. J.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for sea turtles in {N}orth {C}arolina inshore waters},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {93},
  pages = {254--261}
}
Erickson, A. W., Siniff, D. B. & Harwood, J. 1993 Estimation of population sizes Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques :29--45      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Erietal93,
  author = {Erickson, A. W. and Siniff, D. B. and Harwood, J.},
  title = {Estimation of population sizes},
  booktitle = {Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {29--45}
}
Erwin, R. M. 1982 Observer variability in estimating numbers: an experiment Journal of Field Ornithology 53:159--167      
BibTeX:
@article{Erw82,
  author = {Erwin, R. M.},
  title = {Observer variability in estimating numbers: an experiment},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {159--167}
}
Erxleben, D., Butler, M., Ballard, W., Wallace, M., Hardin, J. & Demaso, S. 2010 Encounter rates from road-based surveys of Rio Grande wild turkeys in Texas The Journal of Wildlife Management 74:1134-1140     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Erxleben2010,
  author = {Erxleben, D.R. and Butler, M.J. and Ballard, W.B. and Wallace, M.C. and Hardin, J.B. and Demaso, S.J.},
  title = {Encounter rates from road-based surveys of Rio Grande wild turkeys in Texas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {1134-1140}
}
Erxleben, D., Butler, M., Ballard, W., Wallace, M., Peterson, M., Silvy, N., Kuvlesky, W., Hewitt, D., DeMaso, S., Hardin, J. & Dominguez-Brazil, M. 2011 Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance sampling European Journal of Wildlife Research 57:57-65   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10344-010-0399-4,
  author = {Erxleben, Devin and Butler, Matthew and Ballard, Warren and Wallace, Mark and Peterson, Markus and Silvy, Nova and Kuvlesky, William and Hewitt, David and DeMaso, Stephen and Hardin, Jason and Dominguez-Brazil, Megan},
  title = {Wild Turkey (\textit{Meleagris gallopavo}) association to roads: implications for distance sampling},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {57-65},
  note = {10.1007/s10344-010-0399-4},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10344-010-0399-4}
}
Estades, C. F. & Temple, S. A. 1999 Deciduous-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations Ecological Applications 9:573--585      
BibTeX:
@article{Esttem99,
  author = {Estades, C. F. and Temple, S. A.},
  title = {Deciduous-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {573--585}
}
Estes, J. A. & Gilbert, J. R. 1978 Evaluation of an aerial survey of Pacific walruses Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35:1130--1140      
BibTeX:
@article{EstGil78,
  author = {Estes, J. A. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of an aerial survey of {P}acific walruses},
  journal = {Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1130--1140}
}
Evans, B., Ashley, J. & Marsden, S. J. 2005 Abundance, habitat use and movements of blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve Wilson Bulletin 117:154--164      
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2005,
  author = {Evans, B. and Ashley, J and Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Abundance, habitat use and movements of blue-winged {macaws (\textit{Primolius maracana}) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve}},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {117},
  pages = {154--164}
}
Evans, K. O., Burger, L. W., Oedekoven, C. S., Smith, M. D., Riffell, S. K., Martin, J. A. & Buckland, S. T. 2013 Multi-region response to conservation buffers targeted for northern bobwhite The Journal of Wildlife Management :716–725   DOI URL    
Abstract: We coordinated a large-scale evaluation of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population response to establishment of 9-m to 37-m linear patches (buffers) of native herbaceous vegetation along row-crop field margins as part of the Conservation Reserve Program practice Habitat Buffers for Upland Birds (CP33). We compared northern bobwhite covey densities on 1,088 paired row-crop fields with and without native herbaceous buffers in 13 states during autumn, 2006–2008. We used a 2-stage random effects modeling approach that incorporates the effective area as an offset in generalized linear mixed models to assess regional relationships among autumn bobwhite covey densities and covariates of field type (i.e., fields with vs. without native herbaceous buffers), ecological region, year, survey week, and contracted vegetative cover (i.e., planting native grasses and forbs vs. establishing through natural regeneration). Covey density was correlated with year and interaction effects of field type and ecological region. The year effect suggested annual variation in covey densities, whereas the field type by ecological region interaction suggested covey response to buffers was dependent on spatial location, likely reflecting differences in buffer establishment, succession, and characteristics of the surrounding landscape among regions. Mean fitted covey density on fields across all survey sites was 0.047 (±0.008 bootstrap standard error [BSE]) and 0.031 coveys/ha (±0.003 BSE) on row-crop fields with and without herbaceous buffers, respectively. Covey density was greater on fields with buffers relative to matched, comparison fields without buffers in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (241%; P < 0.001) and both the eastern (123%; P < 0.001) and western (60%; P = 0.01) portions of the Southeastern Coastal Plain region. Covey density was an order of magnitude greater in the central Texas region compared to other regions, but exhibited a small response to native herbaceous buffers, as did density of coveys in the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Central Hardwoods regions. Disproportionate response to buffers in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and Southeastern Coastal Plain suggests native herbaceous habitats might be limiting during autumn in these regions, whereas lack of response in the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie, Central Hardwoods, and central Texas regions suggests that herbaceous habitat either was not limiting or buffers failed to provide adequate requirements for bobwhites during autumn. Selection of other habitats to meet security and thermoregulatory needs might have resulted in lack of response in these regions. Native herbaceous cover provided by buffers can provide critical habitat in row-crop agricultural systems in some regions, and can contribute to regional population recovery objectives of the Northern Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI). However, range-wide NBCI recovery objectives will best be met through multiple conservation practices in row-crop agricultural systems. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2013,
  author = {Evans, Kristine O. and Burger, L. Wes and Oedekoven, Cornelia S. and Smith, Mark D. and Riffell, Samuel K. and Martin, James A. and Buckland, Stephen T.},
  title = {Multi-region response to conservation buffers targeted for northern bobwhite},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {716–725},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.502},
  doi = {10.1002/jwmg.502}
}
Evans, T. J., Fischbach, A., Schliebe, S., Manly, B., Kalxdorff, S. & York, G. 2003 Polar Bear Aerial Survey in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: A Pilot Study Arctic 56:359-366     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2003,
  author = {Thomas J. Evans And Anthony Fischbach And Scott Schliebe And Bryan Manly And Susanne Kalxdorff And Geoff York},
  title = {Polar Bear Aerial Survey in the {Eastern Chukchi Sea}: A Pilot Study},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {359-366}
}
Evans-Mack, D., Raphael, M. G. & Laake, J. L. 2002 Probability of detecting marbled murrelets at sea: effects of single versus paired observers Journal of Wildlife Management 66:865--873      
BibTeX:
@article{Evaetal02,
  author = {Evans-Mack, D. and Raphael, M. G. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Probability of detecting marbled murrelets at sea: effects of single versus paired observers},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {865--873}
}
Fancy, S. G. 1997 A new approach for analyzing bird densities from variable circular-plot counts Pacific Science 51:107--114     PDF  
Review: Tenho um workspace com coisas para implementar esta abordagem - ver pasta amrela Fancy's stuff
BibTeX:
@article{Fan97,
  author = {Fancy, S. G.},
  title = {A new approach for analyzing bird densities from variable circular-plot counts},
  journal = {Pacific Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {107--114}
}
Fancy, S. G., Snetsinger, T. J. & Jacobi, J. D. 1997 Translocation of the palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper Pacific Conservation Biology 3:39--46      
BibTeX:
@article{Fancy1997,
  author = {Steven G. Fancy and Thomas J. Snetsinger and James D. Jacobi},
  title = {Translocation of the palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {39--46}
}
Farina, A. 1995 Distribution and dynamics of birds in a rural sub-Mediterranean landscape Landscape and Urban Planning 31:269--280      
BibTeX:
@article{Far95,
  author = {Farina, A.},
  title = {Distribution and dynamics of birds in a rural sub-{M}editerranean landscape},
  journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {269--280}
}
Farnsworth, G. L., Nichols, J. D., Sauer, J. R., Fancy, S. G., Kenneth, Pollock, H., Shriner, S. A. & Simons, T. R. 2005 Statistical Approaches to the Analysis of Point Count Data: A Little Extra Information Can Go a Long Way USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. :736-743     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Faretalb02,
  author = {George L. Farnsworth and James D. Nichols and John R. Sauer and Steven G. Fancy and Kenneth and H. Pollock and Susan A. Shriner and Theodore R. Simons},
  title = {Statistical Approaches to the Analysis of Point Count Data: A Little Extra Information Can Go a Long Way},
  journal = {USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep.},
  year = {2005},
  number = {PSW-GTR-191},
  pages = {736-743}
}
Farnsworth, G. L., Pollock, K. H., Nichols, J. D., Simons, T. R., Hines, J. E. & Sauer, J. R. 2002 A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys The Auk 119:414--425      
BibTeX:
@article{Faretal02,
  author = {Farnsworth, G. L. and Pollock, K. H. and Nichols, J. D. and Simons, T. R. and Hines, J. E. and Sauer, J. R.},
  title = {A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {414--425}
}
Fashing, P. J. & Cords, M. 2000 Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests American Journal of Primatology 50:139--152     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{FasCor00,
  author = {Fashing, P. J. and Cords, M.},
  title = {Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the {K}akamega {F}orest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {139--152}
}
Faustino, C. E., Silva, M. A., Marques, T. A. & Thomas, L. 2010 Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences 27:49--58     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{FAUSTINO2010,
  author = {Faustino, C. E.S. and M. A. Silva and T. A. Marques and L. Thomas},
  title = {Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago},
  journal = {Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {49--58}
}
Faustino, C. E. S. 2008 Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago, Portugal  :     PDF  
Review: unrevised version is CFaustino2008.pdf
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Faustino2008,
  author = {Cláudia Estevinho Santos Faustino},
  title = {Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the {Azores Archipelago, Portugal}},
  school = {University of St. Andrews},
  year = {2008}
}
Fay, J. M. 1991 An elephant (Loxodonta africana) survey using dung counts in the forests of the Central African Republic Journal of Tropical Ecology 7:25--36      
BibTeX:
@article{Fay,
  author = {Fay, J. M.},
  title = {An elephant (\emph{{L}oxodonta africana}) survey using dung counts in the forests of the {C}entral {A}frican Republic},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {25--36}
}
Fay, J. M. & Agnagna, M. 1991 A population survey of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in northern Congo African Journal of Ecology 29:177--87      
BibTeX:
@article{FayAgn91,
  author = {Fay, J. M. and Agnagna, M.},
  title = {A population survey of forest elephants (\emph{{L}oxodonta africana cyclotis}) in northern {C}ongo},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {177--87}
}
Felce, T., Stone, E., Whiteford, J., James, E., Castrillon, J. & Evans, P. G. To what extent can distance sampling be combined with photo identification as a monitoring tool for Tursiops truncatus  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Felce,
  author = {Tom Felce and Eleanor Stone and Jim Whiteford and Eve James and Juliana Castrillon and Peter G.H. Evans},
  title = {To what extent can distance sampling be combined with photo identification as a monitoring tool for \textit{Tursiops truncatus}}
}
Ferguson, J. & Bester, M. 2002 The treatment of spatial autocorrelation in biological surveys: The case of line transect surveys Antarctic Science 14:115--122      
Abstract: Marked spatial autocorrelation was encountered in an extensive data set on Antarctic seal densities as well as Antarctic pack ice characteristics. Whilst me methodology of measuring spatial autocorrelation is well developed, there is no established infrastructure for statistical inference in terms of correlation analysis or ANOVA. We survey the literature that deals with these problems, as well as some of the approaches that have been proposed for taking autocorrelation into account in inferential statistics. We apply these approaches to a data set comprising Antarctic pack ice seal counts as well as a few environmental measures. In contrast to the predictions from the existing literature, nonlinear estimation suggested that Pearson's r substantially overestimates the tree correlation between seal densities and environmental variables. When compared to spatially adjusted analysis of variance, conventional ANOVA that compared seal densities or pack ice characteristics in different areas overestimated the degree of difference between these areas in proportion to the degree of spatial autocorrelation of the particular data set. In our case, the effects of spatial autocorrelation were not neutralised by treating entire transects as single points. These results emphasise the need for a methodology that takes spatial autocorrelation into account for interpreting the spatial data on Antarctic seals collected during the Antarctic pack ice seal (APIS) program. New software written for performing these analyses is available from the senior author.
BibTeX:
@article{Ferguson2002,
  author = {Ferguson, J.W.H. and Bester, M.N.},
  title = {The treatment of spatial autocorrelation in biological surveys: The case of line transect surveys},
  journal = {Antarctic Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {115--122}
}
Ferrari, S. F., Chagas, R. R. & Souza-Alves, J. P. 2010 Line transect surveying of arboreal monkeys: problems of group size and spread in a highly fragmented landscape American Journal of Primatology 72:1100-1107      
BibTeX:
@article{Ferrari2010,
  author = {Ferrari, S F and Chagas, R R and Souza-Alves, J P},
  title = {Line transect surveying of arboreal monkeys: problems of group size and spread in a highly fragmented landscape},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1100-1107}
}
Ferreira, S. M. & Roberts, C. C. 2003 Distribution and abundance of Maui's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) along the North Island west coast, New Zealand  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Ferreira2003,
  author = {Ferreira, S. M. and Roberts, C. C.},
  title = {Distribution and {abundance of Maui's dolphins (\textit{Cephalorhynchus hectori maui}) along the North Island west coast, New Zealand}},
  year = {2003},
  number = {93}
}
Fewster, R. M. 2011 Variance Estimation for Systematic Designs in Spatial Surveys Biometrics 67:1518--1531   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{BIOM:BIOM1604,
  author = {Fewster, R. M.},
  title = {Variance Estimation for Systematic Designs in Spatial Surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {67},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1518--1531},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01604.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01604.x}
}
Fewster, R. M. & Buckland, S. T. 2004 Assessment of distance sampling estimators Advanced Distance Sampling :281-306      
BibTeX:
@incollection{FewBuc04,
  author = {Fewster,R. M. and Buckland,S. T.},
  title = {Assessment of distance sampling estimators},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {281-306}
}
Fewster, R. M., Buckland, S. T., Burnham, K. P., Borchers, D. L., Jupp, P. E., Laake, J. L. & Thomas., L. 2009 Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling Biometrics 65:225--236     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008b,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and S. T. Buckland and K. P. Burnham and D. L. Borchers and P. E. Jupp and J. L. Laake and L. Thomas.},
  title = {Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {225--236}
}
Fewster, R. & Jupp, P. 2009 Inference on population size in binomial detectability models Biometrika 96:      
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2009,
  author = {Fewster, R.M., and Jupp, P.E.},
  title = {Inference on population size in binomial detectability models},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {96}
}
Fewster, R. M., Laake, J. & Buckland, S. T. 2005 Line Transect Sampling in Small and Large Regions Biometrics 61:856--859      
BibTeX:
@article{Fewetal2005,
  author = {Fewster,R. M. and Laake,J.L. and Buckland,S. T.},
  title = {Line Transect Sampling in Small and Large Regions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {856--859}
}
Fewster, R. M. & Pople, A. R. 2008 A comparison of mark-recapture distance sampling methods applied to aerial surveys of Eastern grey kangaroos Wildlife Research 35:320--330      
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008a,
  author = {Fewster, R. M., and Pople, A. R.},
  title = {A comparison of mark-recapture distance sampling methods applied to aerial surveys of Eastern grey kangaroos},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {320--330}
}
Fewster, R. M., Southwell, C., Borchers, D. L., Buckland, S. T. & Pople, A. R. 2008 The influence of animal mobility on the assumption of uniform distances in aerial line transect surveys Wildlife Research 35:275--288      
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Southwell, C. and Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Pople, A. R.},
  title = {The influence of animal mobility on the assumption of uniform distances in aerial line transect surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {275--288}
}
Finlayson, G., Diment, A., Mitrovski, P., Thompson, G. & Thompson, S. 2010 Estimating western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) density using distance sampling Australian Mammalogy 32:197--200   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Finlayson2010,
  author = {Finlayson, G.R. and Diment, A.N. and Mitrovski, P. and Thompson, G.G., and Thompson, S.A.},
  title = {Estimating western ringtail possum (\textit{Pseudocheirus occidentalis}) density using distance sampling},
  journal = {Australian Mammalogy},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {197--200},
  doi = {10.1071/AM09037}
}
Fiske, I. & Chandler, R. 2010 Package unmarked  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Fiske2010,
  author = {Ian Fiske and Richard Chandler},
  title = {Package unmarked},
  year = {2010}
}
Fiske, I. J. & Chandler, R. B. 2011 unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance Journal of Statistical Software 43:1--23      
BibTeX:
@article{Fiske2011,
  author = {Ian J. Fiske and Richard B. Chandler},
  title = {unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1--23}
}
Fitzgerald, S. M. & Tanner, G. W. 1992 Avian community response to fire and mechanical shrub control in south Florida Journal of Range Management 45:396--400      
BibTeX:
@article{FitTan92,
  author = {Fitzgerald, S. M. and Tanner, G. W.},
  title = {Avian community response to fire and mechanical shrub control in south {F}lorida},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {396--400}
}
Fleming, K. K. & Giuliano, W. M. 1998 Effect of border-edge cuts on birds at woodlot edges in southwestern Pennsylvania Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1430--1437      
BibTeX:
@article{FleGiu98,
  author = {Fleming, K. K., and Giuliano, W. M.},
  title = {Effect of border-edge cuts on birds at woodlot edges in southwestern {P}ennsylvania},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {1430--1437}
}
Fletcher, J. R. & Hutto, L. R. 2006 Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys The Auk 123:695--707     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{FleHut06,
  author = {Fletcher, J. R. and Hutto, L. R.},
  title = {Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  pages = {695--707}
}
Focardi, S., De Marinis, A., Rizzotto, M. & Pucci, A. 2001 Comparative evaluation of thermal infrared imaging and spotlighting to survey wildlife Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:133--139      
Abstract: Spotlighting (SL) is used widely to estimate animal abundance, but it yields density estimates that are underestimated and biased. Introduction of distance sampling has, to a large extent, contributed to solving these problems, but the reliability of this statistical method depends strongly on sample size. Thermal infrared (TI) imaging may improve number of observations, but very few studies have quantified performance of TI imaging relative to SL. This comparison is relevant because the high cost of a TI device is justified only by a significant increase of observations and a consequent reduction of labor costs. Our objectives were to compare animal detectability by SL and TI imaging as a function of animal size, species (red deer [Cervus elaphus], fallow deer [Dama dama], wild boar [Sus scrofa], red fox [Vulpes vulpes], European rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus], and brown hare [Lepus europaeus]), distance, and season. We also analyzed group size and composition for red deer and effect of grass height on detection of hares and rabbits. On average, TI imaging was more efficient (P<0.001) than SL, which detected only 53.8% of the animals observed by TI imaging. This was especially true for wild boar (92.1%), but both devices observed comparable red fox (P=0.60) and fallow deer (P=0.72) numbers. Relative detectability of the 2 devices was influenced by different factors: for red deer, TI was more efficient than SL in summer and autumn, but not in winter; male groups of red deer were better observed by TI imaging than by SL; and wild boars were better imaged at short (0-100-m) distances with TI. Relative effectiveness of both instruments was not influenced by grass height (P=0.92). Our results showed that wild boar should only be surveyed using TI imager and that a strong improvement of sample size can be obtained using TI for red deer, brown hare, and European rabbit.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2001,
  author = {Focardi, S. and De Marinis, A.M. and Rizzotto, M. and Pucci, A.},
  title = {Comparative evaluation of thermal infrared imaging and spotlighting to survey wildlife},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {133--139}
}
Focardi, S., Isotti, R., Raganella Pelliccioni, E. & Iannuzzo, D. 2002 The use of distance sampling and mark-resight to estimate the local density of wildlife populations Environmetrics 13:177--186      
Abstract: We used distance sampling (line transects) and mark-resight to estimate habitat and local area (area size, range: 3.9-44.5 ha) population density of ungulates. The distance sampling study was performed on fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a mediterranean forest. The mark-resight study was performed on a roe deer population in a hilly area of the Apennines. The first study allowed us to estimate the animal density into four different habitats (deciduous oak wood, evergreen oak wood, maquis and open areas with domestic-pine woods). The between habitat differences of population density are large for the three species: fallow deer are more abundant in the open areas (22.22 heads/km2, c.i. 12.42-39.74), roe deer in the deciduous oak wood (14.50 heads/km2, c.i. 7.01-30.10) and wild boar in both the open areas (11.29 heads/km2, c.i. 4.86-26.20) and evergreen oak wood (10.42 heads/km2, c.i. 6.78-16.02). The roe deer population in the Apennines is characterized by large between-zone variations of population density (range: 1997: 13.25-131.31, 1998: 29.06-78.01, 1999: 10.67-88.58). Moreover, trends of local zones may be quite different with respect to the average trend of a wider study area, suggesting a well-defined short-scale spatial structure for this population. We conclude that both survey methods may be very useful in population assessment, but they need intense field effort and careful statistical design. Care needs to be taken to satisfy the assumptions of the statistical models. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2002,
  author = {Focardi, S. and Isotti, R. and Raganella Pelliccioni, E. and Iannuzzo, D.},
  title = {The use of distance sampling and mark-resight to estimate the local density of wildlife populations},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {177--186}
}
Focardi, S., Isotti, R. & Tinelli, A. 2002 Line Transect Estimates of Ungulate Populations in a Mediterranean Forest The Journal of Wildlife Management 66:48--58   URL    
Abstract: We used line transect (distance) methodology to estimate the population density of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in a dense Mediterranean forest. Three different surveys (1 per year from 1995 to 1997) were analyzed. Density estimates, pooled among years, for fallow deer (9.9 deer/$km^2$, %CV = 24) and roe deer (8.5 deer/$km^2$, %CV = 21) were more precise than the estimate for wild boars (10.6 boars/$km^2$, %CV = 55). Fallow deer density was significantly higher during 1997 than during 1995 or 1996. For wild boars, we found differences among years (1995: 23.6 boars/$km^2$, %CV = 23; 1996: 10.9 boars/$km^2$, %CV = 24; 1997: 3.9 boars/$km^2$, %CV = 33). We attempted a confirmatory analysis using an independent survey method for fallow deer and total counts at supplementary feeding sites for wild boars. These comparisons showed that line transect estimates were negatively biased for fallow deer during 1996-1997 and for wild boars during 1997. For adults, the composition by sex from line transects was compared with information collected from fixed observation points. Differences in sex composition for fallow deer and wild boars were found when these 2 methods were compared. The structure of the roe deer population was similar when line transect information was compared with independent survey data. A spike in the detection probability function for wild boars may have been caused by the difficulty of detecting boars >20 m from the transect. The careful use of line transect sampling may prove useful for both research and management of fallow deer, roe deer, and wild boars.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2002a,
  author = {Focardi, Stefano and Isotti, Roberto and Tinelli, Aleandro},
  title = {Line Transect Estimates of Ungulate Populations in a Mediterranean Forest},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {66},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48--58},
  url = {http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-541X%28200201%2966%3A1%3C48%3ALTEOUP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S}
}
Focardi, S., Montanaro, P., Isotti, R., Ronchi, F., Scacco, M. & Calmanti, R. 2005 Distance sampling effectively monitored a declining population of Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus ORYX 39:421--428      
Abstract: Monitoring rare species of wild ungulates is critical for their conservation management. The Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus was recently confirmed to be a subspecies in Mediterranean habitats of central and southern Italy. We have monitored this subspecies at Castelporziano, near Rome, since 1988, and detected an abrupt population decline in 2001. We compared distance sampling surveys undertaken before and after the population crash to determine the ability of this method to detect variations in animal density and to investigate which factors may influence the precision of the estimates. We used radio tagged roe deer to evaluate the accuracy of our surveys, comparing distance sampling and mark-resight estimates at the same site, and studying the behavioural reaction of the animals to the presence of an observer. We found that before the crash distance sampling surveys attained a good precision but that the survey conditions influenced both precision and accuracy. Post-crash surveys were less precise, but the difference in density, before and after the crash was highly significant, indicating the potential of the method to quickly detect density variations and so to allow wildlife managers to react without delay to a crisis. The direct test of distance sampling assumptions showed that estimates were almost unbiased. We conclude that the methodology was successful for monitoring this population and that it may be used in other situations where ungulates are rare and efficient monitoring must be attained with restricted budgets. © 2005 FFI.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2005,
  author = {Focardi, S. and Montanaro, P. and Isotti, R. and Ronchi, F. and Scacco, M. and Calmanti, R.},
  title = {Distance sampling effectively monitored a declining population of Italian roe deer \textit{Capreolus capreolus italicus}},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {421--428}
}
Fogarty, J. H. & Vilella, F. J. 2001 Evaluating Methodologies to Survey Eleutherodactylus Frogs in Montane Forests of Puerto Rico Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:948--955      
Abstract: The evaluation of anuran call-count survey methods against more precise population estimation techniques for validation purposes is being researched only recently. Many investigators believe that call-survey methods should be calibrated to true population size to obtain reliable records, and this has not been done for call-survey methods in Neotropical regions. We compared anuran survey methodologies in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico. We evaluated using mark-recapture, transects, and point counts to survey Eleutherodactylus populations for information content, logistics, and effort in native cordillera forest and eucalyptus plantations. We used programs CAPTURE and DISTANCE to generate population estimates and associated variances. Mark-recapture results showed density of E. coqui males was greater (P=0.04) in native forest. Total population estimates derived from mark-recapture were used with calling estimates to calculate proportion of calling males. Humidity was associated with density of calling males in native forest (P<0.001) and eucalyptus (P=0.01) plantations. Call counts of E. coqui within 5-m radius of points were correlated with density of calling males in native (P<0.001) and eucalyptus (P=0.001) sites and for combined data (P<0.001). We recommend that mark-recapture be used when detailed information is needed on an anuran species. Mean species richness detected between line transect (x=1.98) and point count (x=1.67) differed significantly; only one frog species was detected using mark-recapture. Point counts required the least effort but provided the least amount of useful information. Future research should develop predictive models linking call counts to density estimates and examine seasonal effects.
BibTeX:
@article{Fogarty2001,
  author = {Jarrod H. Fogarty and Francisco J. Vilella},
  title = {Evaluating Methodologies to Survey \textit{Eleutherodactylus Frogs} in Montane Forests of Puerto Rico},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {948--955}
}
Folkard, N. F. G. & Smith, J. N. M. 1995 Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization? Canadian Journal of Zoology 73:2231--2237      
BibTeX:
@article{FolSmi95,
  author = {Folkard, N. F. G. and Smith, J. N. M.},
  title = {Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization?},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {2231--2237}
}
Fontaine, A., Kennedy, P. & Johnson, D. 2004 Effects of distance from cattle water developments on grassland birds Journal of Range Management 57:238--242      
Abstract: Many North American grassland bird populations appear to be declining, which may be due to changes in grazing regimes on their breeding areas. Establishment of water developments and confining cattle (Bos taurus L.) to small pastures often minimizes spatial heterogeneity of cattle forage consumption, which may lead to uniformity in vegetative structure. This increased uniformity may provide suitable habitat for some bird species but not others. We assessed how cattle use, vegetative structure, and bird population densities varied with increasing distance from water developments (0-800 m) on the Little Missouri National Grassland (LMNG) in North Dakota. Lark buntings (Calamospiza melancorys Stejneger), which are typically associated with low vegetative cover, decreased with increasing distance from water developments. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris L.), also a low-cover associate, followed a similar but weaker trend. Densities of another low-cover associate as well as moderate- and high-cover associates were not related to distance from water. Vegetative height-density and litter depth increased by 50 and 112%, respectively, while cowpie cover and structural variability decreased by 51 and 24%, respectively, with distance from water. Confidence interval overlap was common among all measures, showing substantial variability among study sites. Our results indicate cattle use is higher closer to water developments, and this pattern may positively affect the densities of lark buntings and horned larks. The absence of density gradients in the other bird species may be due to the paucity of locations > 800 m from water on the LMNG.
BibTeX:
@article{Fontaine2004,
  author = {Fontaine, A.L. and Kennedy, P.L. and Johnson, D.H.},
  title = {Effects of distance from cattle water developments on grassland birds},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {238--242}
}
Foote, K. G. & Stefansson, G. 1993 Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line transect measurements of density ICES Journal of Marine Science 50:369--381      
BibTeX:
@article{FooSte93,
  author = {Foote, K. G. and Stefansson, G.},
  title = {Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line transect measurements of density},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {369--381}
}
Forbes, A. R., Mueller, J. M., Mitchell, R. B., Dabbert, C. B. & Wester, D. B. 2000 Accuracy of red imported fire ant mound density estimates Southwestern Entomologist 25:109--112      
Abstract: Accuracy of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, mound density estimates was evaluated during 1998 in the Texas Coastal Prairie. Mound densities were estimated using belt transects and distance sampling, the grasslands were burned, and the estimated mound densities compared to complete ant mound counts made on each of the five sites. Mound population density estimates did not differ among the three methods. Detection of S. invicta mounds decreased with distance from the line transect on three sites. Based on the detection function derived by Program DISTANCE for these sites, we recorded 89.9, 97.3, and 98.1% of S. invicta mounds within 1 m and 70.8, 89.9, and 92.7% of S. invicta mounds within 2 m of the line transects, respectively. The 2-m belt transects and distance sampling are accurate estimators of S. invicta mound densities in grassland habitats. Although distance sampling is more time consuming, it does not require the assumption that all mounds are observed. This benefit was not obvious in this study because of the similarity of our sites and the high detectability of mounds within the 2-m belt transects. Accuracy of belt transects would decrease if wider transects were used or if detectability of S. invicta mounds was lower, such as in denser vegetation. We recommend using belt transects or distance sampling to estimate S. invicta mound density in grassland habitats.
BibTeX:
@article{Forbes2000,
  author = {Forbes, A. R. and Mueller, J. M. and Mitchell, R. B. and Dabbert, C. B. and Wester, D. B.},
  title = {Accuracy of red imported fire ant mound density estimates},
  journal = {Southwestern Entomologist},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2 SUPPL.},
  pages = {109--112}
}
Forcada, J. 2002 Multivariate methods for size-dependent detection in conventional line transect sampling  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Forcada2002,
  author = {Forcada, J.},
  title = {Multivariate methods for size-dependent detection in conventional line transect sampling},
  year = {2002}
}
Forcada, J., Disciara, G. N. & Fabbri, F. 1995 Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian Basin Mammalia 59:127--140      
BibTeX:
@article{Foretal95,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Disciara, G. N. and Fabbri, F.},
  title = {Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian Basin},
  journal = {Mammalia},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {127--140}
}
Forcada, J., Gazo, M., Aguilar, A., Gonzalvo, J. & Fernández-Contreras, M. 2004 Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: Addressing heterogeneity in distribution Marine Ecology Progress Series 275:275--287     PDF  
Abstract: Line-transect estimators were developed to assess abundance of coastal dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba encountered in low densities during aerial sighting surveys. The analysis improved on conventional approaches by objectively combining data from different species, survey areas and other covariates affecting dolphin detectability. Model selection and multimodel inference allowed robust estimates of precision in accounting for covariate selection uncertainty. These methods were used to estimate bottlenose dolphin abundance in NE Mediterranean waters that included a putative subpopulation in the Balearic Islands. Total abundance was estimated as 7654 (coefficient of variation, CV = 0.47; 95 % CI = 1608 to 15 766) and the abundance in inshore waters of the Balearic Islands varied from 727 (CV = 0.47; 95 % CI = 149 to 1481) dolphins in spring 2002 to 1333 (CV = 0.44; 95 % CI = 419 to 2617) dolphins in autumn 2002, with an average estimate of 1030 (CV = 0.35; 95 % CI = 415 to 1849). The results do not support an exclusively coastal Balearic Island subpopulation, but they strongly indicate that the islands contain critical habitats required for the conservation of the species. Given the observed decline of the species during the last few decades, conservation-oriented management should focus on reducing or eliminating adverse fishing interactions while key areas are protected from encroachment produced by human development.
BibTeX:
@article{Foretal04,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Gazo, M. and Aguilar, A. and Gonzalvo, J. and Fern\'andez-Contreras, M.},
  title = {Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: Addressing heterogeneity in distribution},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {275},
  pages = {275--287}
}
Forcada, J. & Hammond, P. 1998 Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean Journal of Sea Research 39:313--325      
BibTeX:
@article{ForHam98,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Hammond, P.},
  title = {Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean},
  journal = {Journal of Sea Research},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {313--325}
}
Forney, K. A. & Barlow, J. 1998 Seasonal patterns in the abundance and distribution of California cetaceans, 1991-1992 Marine Mammal Science 14:460--489      
BibTeX:
@article{ForBar98,
  author = {Forney, K. A. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Seasonal patterns in the abundance and distribution of {C}alifornia cetaceans, 1991-1992},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {460--489}
}
Franceschi, S., Nelli, L., Pisani, C., Franzoi, A., Fattorini, L. & Meriggi, A. 2014 A monte carlo appraisal of plot and distance sampling for surveys of black grouse and rock ptarmigan populations in alpine protected areas The Journal of Wildlife Management 78:359--368   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{JWMG:JWMG661,
  author = {Franceschi, Sara and Nelli, Luca and Pisani, Caterina and Franzoi, Alessandro and Fattorini, Lorenzo and Meriggi, Alberto},
  title = {A monte carlo appraisal of plot and distance sampling for surveys of black grouse and rock ptarmigan populations in alpine protected areas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {78},
  number = {2},
  pages = {359--368},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.661},
  doi = {10.1002/jwmg.661}
}
Franklin, A. B., Anderson, D. R. & Burnham, K. P. 2002 Estimation of long-term trends and variation in avian survival probabilities using random effects models Journal of Applied Statistics 29:267--287      
BibTeX:
@article{Fraetal02,
  author = {Franklin, A. B. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Estimation of long-term trends and variation in avian survival probabilities using random effects models},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {267--287}
}
Franzreb, K. E. 1981 Determination of avian densities using the variable-strip and fixed-width transect surveying methods Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :139--145      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Fra81,
  author = {Franzreb, K. E.},
  title = {Determination of avian densities using the variable-strip and fixed-width transect surveying methods},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {139--145}
}
Franzreb, K. E. 1976 Comparison of variable strip transect and spot-map methods for censusing avian populations in a mixed-coniferous forest Condor 78:260--262     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Fra76,
  author = {Franzreb, K. E.},
  title = {Comparison of variable strip transect and spot-map methods for censusing avian populations in a mixed-coniferous forest},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {78},
  pages = {260--262}
}
Freed, L.A., C. R. B. G. 2008 Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species Evolutionary Ecology Research 10:931-965   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Freed2008931,
  author = {Freed, L.A., Cann, R.L., Bodner, G.R.},
  title = {Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species},
  journal = {Evolutionary Ecology Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10},
  number = {7},
  pages = {931-965},
  note = {cited By (since 1996) 2},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-57849160828&partnerID=40&md5=84937affbc432360faeb5025c25a3926}
}
Freilich, J., Burnham, K. P., Collins, C. M. & Garry, C. A. 2000 Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises Conservation Biology 14:1479--1489      
BibTeX:
@article{Freetal00,
  author = {Freilich, J and Burnham, K. P and Collins, C. M. and Garry, C. A.},
  title = {Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1479--1489}
}
Freilich, J., Camp, R., Duda, J. & Karl, A. 2005 Problems with sampling desert tortoises: A simulation analysis based on field data Journal of Wildlife Management 69:45--56      
Abstract: The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was listed as a U.S. threatened species in 1990 based largely on population declines inferred from mark-recapture surveys of 2.59-km2 (1-mi2) plots. Since then, several census methods have been proposed and tested, but all methods still pose logistical or statistical difficulties. We conducted computer simulations using actual tortoise location data from 2 1-mi2 plot surveys in southern California, USA, to identify strengths and weaknesses of current sampling strategies. We considered tortoise population estimates based on these plots as ``truth" and then tested various sampling methods based on sampling smaller plots or transect lines passing through the mile squares. Data were analyzed using Schnabel's mark-recapture estimate and program CAPTURE. Experimental subsampling with replacement of the 1-mi2 data using 1-km2 and 0.25-km2 plot boundaries produced data sets of smaller plot sizes, which we compared to estimates from the 1-mi 2 plots. We also tested distance sampling by saturating a 1-mi 2 site with computer simulated transect lines, once again evaluating bias in density estimates. Subsampling estimates from 1-km2 plots did not differ significantly from the estimates derived at 1-mi2. The 0.25-km2 subsamples significantly overestimated population sizes, chiefly because too few recaptures were made. Distance sampling simulations were biased 80% of the time and had high coefficient of variation to density ratios. Furthermore, a prospective power analysis suggested limited ability to detect population declines as high as 50%. We concluded that poor performance and bias of both sampling procedures was driven by insufficient sample size, suggesting that all efforts must be directed to increasing numbers found in order to produce reliable results. Our results suggest that present methods may not be capable of accurately estimating desert tortoise populations.
BibTeX:
@article{Freilich2005,
  author = {Freilich, J.E. and Camp, R.J. and Duda, J.J. and Karl, A.E.},
  title = {Problems with sampling desert tortoises: A simulation analysis based on field data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {69},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45--56}
}
Fuller, R. J. & Langslow, D. R. 1984 Estimating numbers of birds by point counts: how long should counts last? Bird Study 31:195--202      
BibTeX:
@article{FulLan84,
  author = {Fuller, R. J. and Langslow, D. R.},
  title = {Estimating numbers of birds by point counts: how long should counts last?},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {195--202}
}
Fulling, G., Thorson, P. & Rivers, J. 2011 Distribution and abundance estimates for Cetaceans in the waters off Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Pacific Science 65:321--343     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Fullinginpress,
  author = {Fulling, G.L. and P.H. Thorson and J. Rivers},
  title = {Distribution and abundance estimates for Cetaceans in the waters off Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands},
  journal = {Pacific Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {321--343}
}
Funk, W., Almeida-Reinoso, D., Nogales-Sornosa, F. & Bustamante, M. 2003 Monitoring population trends of Eleutherodactylus frogs Journal of Herpetology 37:245--256     PDF  
Abstract: Like many Neotropical frogs, a number in the genus Eleutherodactylus have declined or gone extinct in the past two decades. However, the extent of Eleutherodactylus population declines is unknown. Our objective was to identify a good method for monitoring the density of Eleutherodactylus populations to assess the extent of declines. We did this in two ways. First, we compared two methods of directly estimating density, closed population capture-recapture analysis and distance sampling, and one method of indirectly estimating density, visual encounter surveys, for multiple Eleutherodactylus species at three sites in Ecuador. We then conducted a power analysis to estimate the power of our current sampling design to detect declines. Distance sampling estimates of density were biased low compared to capture-recapture estimates. When we corrected this bias, distance sampling estimates became imprecise. Estimates of density from visual encounter surveys were also imprecise. In contrast, capture-recapture estimates were fairly precise and most likely unbiased. Moreover, capture-recapture analysis had the most power to detect declines, although even with capture-recapture analysis, power was low with only five years of sampling. We conclude that capture-recapture analysis is a good method for monitoring Eleutherodactylus density over time, but the sampling area and/or the number of sampling occasions should be increased from the area and number of occasions used here in order to increase sample sizes and therefore power.
BibTeX:
@article{Funk2003,
  author = {Funk, W.C. and Almeida-Reinoso, D. and Nogales-Sornosa, F. and Bustamante, M.R.},
  title = {Monitoring population trends of \textit{Eleutherodactylus} frogs},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {37},
  number = {2},
  pages = {245--256}
}
Gómez De Segura, A., Tomás, J., Pedraza, S. N., Crespo, E. A. & Raga, J. A. 2003 Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around Columbretes Islands Marine Reserve, Spanish Mediterranean Marine Biology 143:817--823      
BibTeX:
@article{Gomez2003,
  author = {G{\'o}mez De Segura, A. and Tom{\'a}s, J. and Pedraza, S. N. and Crespo, E. A. and Raga, J. A.},
  title = {Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, \textit{Caretta caretta}, around Columbretes Islands Marine Reserve, Spanish Mediterranean},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {143},
  number = {4},
  pages = {817--823}
}
Gabelli, F. M., Fernández, G. J., Ferretti, V., Posse, G., Coconier, E., Gavieiro, H. J., Llambías, P. E., Peláez, P. I., Vallés, M. L. & Tubaro, P. L. 2004 Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark Sturnella defilippii in the southern pampas grasslands of Argentina ORYX 38:164--170     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Gabelli2004,
  author = {Gabelli, F. M. and Fern{\'a}ndez, G. J. and Ferretti, V. and Posse, G. and Coconier, E. and Gavieiro, H. J. and Llamb{\'i}as, P. E. and Pel{\'a}ez, P. I. and Vall{\'e}s, M. L. and Tubaro, P. L.},
  title = {Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark \textit{Sturnella defilippii} in the southern pampas grasslands of Argentina},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {38},
  number = {2},
  pages = {164--170}
}
Gaillard, J. M., Boutin, J.-M. & Van Laere, G. 1993 The use of line transects for estimating the population density of roe deer --- a feasibility study Revue d'Ecologie --- la Terre et la Vie 48:73--85      
BibTeX:
@article{Gaietal93,
  author = {Gaillard, J. M. and Boutin, J.-M. and Van Laere, G.},
  title = {The use of line transects for estimating the population density of roe deer --- a feasibility study},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie --- la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {73--85}
}
Gale, G. A., Round, P. D. & Pierce, A. J. 2009 A field test of distance sampling methods for a tropical forest bird community The Auk 126:439--448     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Gale2009,
  author = {George A. Gale and Philip D. Round and Andrew J. Pierce},
  title = {A field test of distance sampling methods for a tropical forest bird community},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {439--448}
}
Gale, G. & Thongaree, S. 2006 Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand Bird Conservation International 16:57--69      
Abstract: Hornbills are useful indicators of forest condition and human disturbance because they require large tracts of unfragmented forest with large fruiting trees for feeding and nesting. They are relatively large-bodied, which makes them targets for hunting. Density estimates of such species are critical for population monitoring and serve as a baseline against which future changes can be measured. In this study we used variable-width line transect surveys to estimate the densities of nine hornbill species in the Bala portion of the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary on the Thai-Malaysia border, one of the few remaining areas of lowland forest in Thailand. The hornbill species were: Rhinoceros (Buceros rhinoceros), Great (B. bicornis), Helmeted (B. vigil), Black (Anthracoceros malayanus), Bushy-crested (Anorrhinus galeritus), White-crowned (Aceros comatus), Wrinkled (A. corrugatus), Wreathed (A. undulatus) and Plain-pouched (A. subruficollis). Between January 2001 and April 2002, 11 transects along trails, old logging roads and one paved road were surveyed once per month. A total of 1,261 observations of the nine species were made during the observation period. Estimates for Rhinoceros and Helmeted Hornbill were 2.69 and 1.21 individuals/ km2, respectively, and were similar or slightly higher than densities reported elsewhere. Estimates for Great (0.12), Bushy-crested (0.64), Wrinkled (0.08), White-crowned (0.08) and Wreathed Hornbills (0.69) were generally lower than estimates from other areas in the region. It was not possible to obtain density estimates using distance sampling for Black and Plain-pouched Hornbills due to the small number of observations, but our data did suggest that their densities were also low (>0.10 individuals/km2). Potential reasons for differences between this and other areas include a scarcity of lowland habitat, habitat isolation, lower abundance of specific fruit resources and interspecific competition, but these factors require further investigation. Standardization of survey techniques among studies would significantly improve assessments of habitat requirements as well as of the effects of human disturbance on Asian hornbills, most of which are globally threatened. Our study specifically underscores the need for additional research on the Plain-pouched Hornbill, the most threatened of the species studied, as density estimates from elsewhere in its range are lacking, while more generally it highlights the need to investigate the underlying causes of the often substantial variation in hornbill densities among species and sites. © BirdLife International 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Gale2006,
  author = {Gale, G.A. and Thongaree, S.},
  title = {Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {57--69}
}
Galela, R. S. & Roscom, B. A. 2004 Distance Sampling Simulated For Density Estimation 9th National Convention on Statistics (NCS) :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Galela2004,
  author = {Rebecca S. Galela and Brigida A. Roscom},
  title = {Distance Sampling Simulated For Density Estimation},
  booktitle = {9th National Convention on Statistics (NCS)},
  year = {2004}
}
Galindo, J. A., Serrano, A., Vázquez-Castán, L., González-Gándara, C. & López-Ortega, M. 2009 Cetacean diversity, distribution, and abundance in Northern Veracruz, Mexico Aquatic Mammals 35:12--18      
BibTeX:
@article{Galindo2009,
  author = {José A. Galindo and Arturo Serrano and Laura Vázquez-Castán and Carlos González-Gándara and Marisela López-Ortega},
  title = {Cetacean diversity, distribution, and abundance in {Northern Veracruz, Mexico}},
  journal = {Aquatic Mammals},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {12--18}
}
Gangadharan, A. 2005 Density Estimation and Time Trend Analysis of Large Herbivores in Nagarhole, India  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Gangadharan2005,
  author = {Gangadharan, A},
  title = {Density Estimation and Time Trend Analysis of Large Herbivores in Nagarhole, India},
  school = {Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University},
  year = {2005}
}
Gannier, A. 2011 Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: A case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea Marine Pollution Bulletin 63:10 - 17   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Gannier2011,
  author = {Alexandre Gannier},
  title = {Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: A case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea},
  journal = {Marine Pollution Bulletin},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {10 - 17},
  note = {Cetaceans and military sonar: A need for better management},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X10001736},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.037}
}
Gannier, A. 1998 Estimation of summer abundance of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833) in the future northwestern Mediterranean international marine sanctuary Revue d'Ecologie --- la Terre et la Vie 53:255--272      
BibTeX:
@article{Gan98,
  author = {Gannier, A.},
  title = {Estimation of summer abundance of the striped dolphin {\textit{Stenella coeruleoalba}} ({M}eyen, 1833) in the future northwestern {M}editerranean international marine sanctuary},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie --- la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {255--272}
}
Gannier, A. 1997 Estimation of summer abundance of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (Linne, 1758) in the Liguro-Provencal Basin (West Mediterranean) Revue d'Ecologie --- la Terre et la Vie 52:69--86      
BibTeX:
@article{Gan97,
  author = {Gannier, A.},
  title = {Estimation of summer abundance of the fin whale {\textit{Balaenoptera physalus}} ({L}inne, 1758) in the {L}iguro-{P}rovencal {B}asin ({W}est {M}editerranean)},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie --- la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {69--86}
}
Gardner, C. J., Fanning, E., Thomas, H. & Kidney, D. 2009 The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo Complex, southwest Madagascar Madagascar Conservation & Development 4:38--43      
BibTeX:
@article{Gardner2009,
  author = {Charlie J. Gardner and Eibleis Fanning and Hannah Thomas and Darren Kidney},
  title = {The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo Complex, southwest Madagascar},
  journal = {Madagascar Conservation \& Development},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {38--43}
}
Garrett-Logan, N. & Smith, T. 1997 A hand-held pen-based computer system for marine mammal sighting surveys Marine Mammal Science 13:694--700      
BibTeX:
@article{GarSmi97,
  author = {Garrett-Logan, N. and Smith, T.},
  title = {A hand-held pen-based computer system for marine mammal sighting surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {694--700}
}
Gaston, A. J., C. B. L. & Diamond, A. W. 1987 The `snapshot' count for estimating densities of flying seabirds during boat transects: a cautionary comment The Auk 104:336--8      
BibTeX:
@article{Gasetal87,
  author = {Gaston, A. J., Collins, B. L. and Diamond, A. W.},
  title = {The `snapshot' count for estimating densities of flying seabirds during boat transects: a cautionary comment},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {336--8}
}
Gates, C. E. 1979 Line transect and related issues Sampling Biological Populations :71--154      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Gat79,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Line transect and related issues},
  booktitle = {Sampling Biological Populations},
  publisher = {International Co-operative Publishing House},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {71--154}
}
Gates, C. E. 1980 LINETRAN, a general computer program for analyzing line transect data Journal of Wildlife Management 44:658--661      
BibTeX:
@article{Gat80,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {{LINETRAN}, a general computer program for analyzing line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {658--661}
}
Gates, C. E. 1969 Simulation study of estimators for the line transect sampling method Biometrics 25:317--328      
BibTeX:
@article{Gat69,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Simulation study of estimators for the line transect sampling method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1969},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {317--328}
}
Gates, C. E., Evans, W., Gober, D. R., Guthery, F. S. & Grant, W. E. 1985 Line transect estimation of animal densities from large data sets Game Harvest Management :37--50      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Gatetal85,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Evans, W. and Gober, D. R. and Guthery, F. S. and Grant, W. E.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of animal densities from large data sets},
  booktitle = {Game Harvest Management},
  publisher = {Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A\&I University},
  year = {1985},
  pages = {37--50}
}
Gates, C. E., Marshall, W. H. & Olson, D. P. 1968 Line transect method of estimating grouse population densities Biometrics 24:135--145      
BibTeX:
@article{Gatetal68,
  author = {Gates, C. E and Marshall, W. H. and Olson, D. P.},
  title = {Line transect method of estimating grouse population densities},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {135--145}
}
Gates, C. E. & Smith, P. W. 1980 An implementation of the Burnham-Anderson distribution free method of estimating wildlife densities from line transect data Biometrics 36:155--160      
BibTeX:
@article{GatSmi80,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Smith, P. W.},
  title = {An implementation of the {B}urnham-{A}nderson distribution free method of estimating wildlife densities from line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {155--160}
}
Geimsdell, J. J. R. & Westley, S. B. (e. 1979 Low-Level Aerial Survey Techniques  :      
BibTeX:
@book{GeiWes79,
  author = {Geimsdell, J. J. R. and Westley, S. B. (eds)},
  title = {Low-Level Aerial Survey Techniques},
  publisher = {International Livestock Centre for Africa},
  year = {1979}
}
Gelatt, T. S. & Siniff, D. B. 1999 Line transect survey of crabeater seals in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, 1994 Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:330--336      
BibTeX:
@article{GelSin99,
  author = {Gelatt, T. S. and Siniff, D. B.},
  title = {Line transect survey of crabeater seals in the {A}mundsen-{B}ellingshausen {S}eas, 1994},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {330--336}
}
Gerard, P. & Schucany, W. 2002 Combining population density estimates in line transect sampling using the kernel method Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 7:233--242     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerard2002,
  author = {Gerard, P.D. and Schucany, W.R.},
  title = {Combining population density estimates in line transect sampling using the kernel method},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {233--242}
}
Gerard, P. D. & Schucany, W. R. 1999 Local bandwidth selection for kernel estimation of population densities with line transect sampling Biometrics 55:769--773      
BibTeX:
@article{GerSch99,
  author = {Gerard, P. D. and Schucany, W. R.},
  title = {Local bandwidth selection for kernel estimation of population densities with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {769--773}
}
Gerdel, K. 2008 Leopard (Panthera pardus) prey prediction using line transect sampling in the Western Soutpansberg mountain range, Limpopo province, South Africa  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@thesis{Gerdel2008,
  author = {Katharina Gerdel},
  title = {Leopard (\textit{Panthera pardus}) prey prediction using line transect sampling in the Western Soutpansberg mountain range, Limpopo province, South Africa},
  school = {University of Tübingen},
  year = {2008},
  note = {Diploma Thesis in Biology, University of Tübingen}
}
Gerrodette, T. & Eguchi, T. 2011 Precautionary design of a marine protected area based on a habitat model Endangered Species Research 15:159-166   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Gerrodette2011159,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Eguchi, T.},
  title = {Precautionary design of a marine protected area based on a habitat model},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {159-166},
  note = {cited By (since 1996) 0},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-83055188784&partnerID=40&md5=243ce1b346fe420c519d71a69d9d0ac1}
}
Gerrodette, T. & Forcada, J. 2005 Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean Marine Ecology Progress Series 291:1--21     PDF  
Abstract: Populations of northeastern offshore spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata attenuata and eastern spinner dolphins S. longirostris orientalis have been reduced because the dolphins are bycatch in the purse-seine fishery for yellowfin tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (the 'tuna-dolphin issue'). Abundance and trends of these dolphin stocks were assessed from 12 large-scale pelagic surveys carried out between 1979 and 2000. Estimates of abundance were based on a multivariate line-transect analysis, using covariates to model the detection process and group size. Current estimates of abundance are about 640 000 northeastern offshore spotted dolphins (CV = 0.17) and 450 000 eastern spinner dolphins (CV = 0.23). For the whole period from 1979 to 2000, annual estimates of abundance ranged from 494 000 to 954 000 for northeastern offshore spotted dolphins and from 271 000 to 734 000 for eastern spinner dolphins. Management actions by USA and international fishing agencies over 3 decades have successfully reduced dolphin bycatch by 2 orders of magnitude, yet neither stock is showing clear signs of recovery. Possible reasons include underreporting of dolphin bycatch, effects of chase and encirclement on dolphin survival and reproduction, long-term changes in the ecosystem, and effects of other species on spotted and spinner dolphin population dynamics. © Inter-Research 2005.
Review: Cita Chen
BibTeX:
@article{GerFor05,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {291},
  pages = {1--21}
}
Gerrodette, T. & Forcada, J. 2002 Estimates of abundance of western/southern spotted, whitebelly spinner, striped and common dolphins, and pilot, sperm and Bryde's whales in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gerrodette2002,
  author = {Gerrodette,T. and Forcada,J.},
  title = {Estimates of abundance of western/southern spotted, whitebelly spinner, striped and common dolphins, and pilot, sperm and Bryde's whales in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean},
  year = {2002}
}
Gerrodette, T., Taylor, B. L., Swift, R., Rankin, S., Jaramillo-Legorreta, A. M. & Rojas-Bracho, L. 2011 A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus Marine Mammal Science 27:E79–E100   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Gerrodette2011,
  author = {Gerrodette, Tim and Taylor, Barbara L. and Swift, René and Rankin, Shannon and Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando M. and Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo},
  title = {A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, \textit{Phocoena sinus}},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {E79–E100},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00438.x}
}
Gilbert, D. W., Anderson, D. R., Ringelman, J. K. & Szymczak, M. R. 1996 Response of nesting ducks to habitat management on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado Wildlife Monographs 131:1--44      
BibTeX:
@article{Giletal96,
  author = {Gilbert, D. W. and Anderson, D. R. and Ringelman, J. K. and Szymczak, M. R.},
  title = {Response of nesting ducks to habitat management on the {M}onte {V}ista {N}ational {W}ildlife {R}efuge, {C}olorado},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {1--44}
}
Gill, R. M. A., Thomas, M. L. & Stocker, D. 1997 The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats Journal of Applied Ecology 34:1273--1286      
Abstract: 1. The reliability of deer population management could be improved with good density estimates, but current methods are either labour-intensive or suffer from uncertainties regarding accuracy. 2. Visibility varies substantially in forests depending on stand type, age and understorey vegetation. In such conditions distance sampling would be an efficient estimation method, but observer disturbance often results in bias when the method is applied to deer. 3. The performance of thermal imaging for estimating deer density by distance sampling was assessed in seven forest deer populations. Thermal imaging equipment can detect the long-wave energy radiated by natural objects, clearly revealing warm-bodied animals even if partly obscured by vegetation. 4. Many more deer were detected at night using a thermal imager than along the same transect routes in daytime. Detection distances were correlated with visibility but were substantially longer than the average distances at which most animals were disturbed. Most deer were detected without causing prior disturbance. 5. Densities were estimated with a coefficient of variation ranging from 10.2-28.4%. Precision depended on sampling effort and sample sizes obtained. 6. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed a quadratic relationship between accuracy and visibility, with accuracy increasing with average visibility and a tendency for deer to select more open habitats within a forest. Under conditions that are likely to be typical of temperate forests (< 40% thicket and neutral selection, or < 70% thicket if thicket is avoided), accuracy was generally good and changed relatively little in relation to visibility and habitat selection. 7. Likely sources of bias as well as alternatives to thermal imaging are discussed. It is concluded that the method would be suitable for estimating ungulate densities in forests with an adequate network of tracks.
BibTeX:
@article{Gill1997,
  author = {Gill, R. M. A. and Thomas, M. L. and Stocker, D.},
  title = {The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1273--1286}
}
Gilles, A., Adler, S., Kaschner, K., Scheidat, M. & Siebert, U. 2011 Modelling harbour porpoise seasonal density as a function of the German Bight environment: implications for management Endangered Species Research 14:157--169     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilles2011,
  author = {Gilles, A and Adler, S and Kaschner, K and Scheidat, M and Siebert, U},
  title = {Modelling harbour porpoise seasonal density as a function of the German Bight environment: implications for management},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {157--169}
}
Gilles, A., Scheidat, M. & Siebert, U. 2009 Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible interference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea Marine Ecology Progress Series 383:295--307      
BibTeX:
@article{Gilles2009,
  author = {Anita Gilles and Meike Scheidat and Ursula Siebert},
  title = {Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible interference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {383},
  pages = {295--307}
}
Gillings, S., Fuller, R. J. & Henderson, A. C. B. 1998 Avian community composition and patterns of bird distribution within birch-heath mosaics in north-east Scotland Ornis Fennica 75:27--37      
Abstract: Territory mapping and transect counts were made in upland birch scrub (46 ha) in north-east Scotland to document the bird community and assess responses of birds to habitat variation. The bird community was species poor, supporting approximately 20 species. Richness and diversity were low compared with other British scrub habitats. The two dominant species were Willow Warbler (52% of territory mapping registra-tions) and Chaffinch (18% of registrations). Densities derived from territory mapping and transect counts (Distance sampling) were similar. Willow Warbler densities were high and comparable with preferred habitats in lowland England and Fennoscandia. Contour mapping, correlation and canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that successional stage, represented by birch cover, was the single most important factor determining community composition and individual species' distributions. Meadow Pipits persisted at low densities in sparse birch; Tree Pipits occurred through-out the range of birch densities. Willow Warblers preferred areas of medium height birch at intermediate canopy cover. Wren, Great Tit and Long-tailed Tit occurred in older birch scrub. The relatively simple bird-habitat relationships reported are con-trasted with more complex patterns elsewhere. These findings are discussed in the context of scrub and woodland regeneration in upland Britain with particular reference to mosaics and maintenance of avian diversity.
BibTeX:
@article{Gillings1998,
  author = {Gillings, S. and Fuller, R. J. and Henderson, A. C. B.},
  title = {Avian community composition and patterns of bird distribution within birch-heath mosaics in north-east Scotland},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {75},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27--37}
}
Giunchi, D., Gaggini, V. & Baldaccini, N. 2007 Distance sampling as an effective method for monitoring feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) urban populations Urban Ecosystems 10:397--412     PDF  
Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;Current methods for estimating feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) population size and for monitoring population trends are mainly based on indices, which according to the current literature on wildlife census methods often produce biased results. Distance Sampling techniques have never been used in this context, even though they could theoretically produce absolute abundance estimates at relatively low costs. The aim of this paper was to investigate the performance of Distance Sampling to census feral pigeons, and to compare these results with those obtained by using Quadrate Counts, a widespread method for monitoring these birds. Surveys were performed in Pisa (Italy) in two different periods of the year 2004 (end of January–beginning of February, and November), which correspond to minimum (January–February) and maximum (November) numbers for pigeon populations. We considered 40 line transects each about 250&nbsp;m long for Distance Sampling, and 40 250 � 250&nbsp;m cells for Quadrate Counts. In both cases, sampling units were randomized in a stratified design. In contrast to Quadrate Counts, Distance Sampling detected the predicted increase of abundance from January–February to November with an acceptable precision and no increase of costs per survey. Even though the possible biases (due to the not rigorously random distribution of transects and to the spiked nature of collected distance data) should be further investigated, results suggest that Distance Sampling is a viable and efficient alternative to the traditional methods used to estimate feral pigeons population size and to monitor trends.
BibTeX:
@article{Giunchi2007,
  author = {Giunchi, Dimitri and Gaggini, Valentina and Baldaccini, N.},
  title = {Distance sampling as an effective method for monitoring feral pigeon (\textit{Columba livia f. domestica}) urban populations},
  journal = {Urban Ecosystems},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {397--412}
}
Gogan, P. J., Thompson, S. C., Pierce, W. & Barrett, R. H. 1986 Line-transect censuses of fallow and black-tailed deer on the Point Reyes Peninsula California Game and Fish 72:47--61      
BibTeX:
@article{Gogetal86,
  author = {Gogan, P. J. and Thompson, S. C. and Pierce, W. and Barrett, R. H.},
  title = {Line-transect censuses of fallow and black-tailed deer on the {P}oint {R}eyes {P}eninsula},
  journal = {California Game and Fish},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {47--61}
}
Goldberg, C. & Schwalbe, C. 2004 Considerations for monitoring a rare anuran (Eleutherodactylus augusti) Southwestern Naturalist 49:442--448      
Abstract: Monitoring wildlife populations is a challenging task for scientists and resource managers. We assessed 4 methods for monitoring population size of barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in southern Arizona: mark-recapture, distance sampling, call counts, and visual encounter surveys. Because of the ecology and behavior of this species, all methods produced data that contained too much variability and bias to be useful for monitoring population size. For cryptic species such as barking frogs, monitoring programs might be more effective if they focus on parameters other than population size.
BibTeX:
@article{Goldberg2004,
  author = {Goldberg, C.S. and Schwalbe, C.R.},
  title = {Considerations for monitoring a rare anuran \textit{(Eleutherodactylus augusti)}},
  journal = {Southwestern Naturalist},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {442--448}
}
Gong, R.-B., Ma, Y.-B. & Zhou, Y. 2009 Confident estimation for density of a biological population based on line transect sampling Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica 26:79-92   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Gong200979,
  author = {Gong, R.-B. and Ma, Y.-B. and Zhou, Y.},
  title = {Confident estimation for density of a biological population based on line transect sampling},
  journal = {Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79-92},
  note = {cited By (since 1996) 0},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-72249086182&partnerID=40&md5=19cbe1a3cf9498632cc0ca485cefc7f8}
}
Good, R. E., Nielson, R. M., Sawyer, H. H. & McDonald, L. L. 2004 Population Level Survey of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Western United States  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Good2004,
  author = {Good, R. E., and Nielson, R. M., and Sawyer, H. H., and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Population Level Survey of Golden Eagles \textit{(Aquila chrysaetos)} in the Western United States},
  year = {2004}
}
Gordon, J. 2001 Measuring the range to animals at sea from boats using photographic and video images Journal of Applied Ecology 38:879--887      
BibTeX:
@article{GOR01,
  author = {Gordon,J.},
  title = {Measuring the range to animals at sea from boats using photographic and video images},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {879--887}
}
Gormezano, L. J. 2005 Exploring the variance components of distance sampling to simplify abundance estimation of white-tailed deer  :      
BibTeX:
@thesis{Gormezano2005,
  author = {Gormezano, Linda J},
  title = {Exploring the variance components of distance sampling to simplify abundance estimation of white-tailed deer},
  school = {State University Of New York, Col. Of Environmental Science \& Forestry},
  year = {2005}
}
Gosselin, J.-F. 2005 Abundance indices of belugas in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2004  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gosselin2005,
  author = {Jean-François Gosselin},
  title = {Abundance indices of belugas in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2004},
  year = {2005},
  number = {2005/011}
}
Gotmark, F. & Post, P. 1996 Prey selection by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus: relative predation risk for breeding passerine birds in relation to their size, ecology and behaviour Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351:1559--1577      
BibTeX:
@article{GotPos96,
  author = {Gotmark, F. and Post, P.},
  title = {Prey selection by sparrowhawks, \emph{{A}ccipiter nisus}: relative predation risk for breeding passerine birds in relation to their size, ecology and behaviour},
  journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {351},
  pages = {1559--1577}
}
Gottschalk, T. & Huettmann, F. 2011 Comparison of distance sampling and territory mapping methods for birds in four different habitats Journal of Ornithology 152:421-429   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Gottschalk2011,
  author = {Gottschalk, Thomas and Huettmann, Falk},
  title = {Comparison of distance sampling and territory mapping methods for birds in four different habitats},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {152},
  pages = {421-429},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-010-0601-1}
}
Graham, A. & Bell, R. 1989 Investigating observer bias in aerial survey by simultaneous double-counts Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1009--1016      
BibTeX:
@article{GraBel89,
  author = {Graham, A. and Bell, R.},
  title = {Investigating observer bias in aerial survey by simultaneous double-counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {1009--1016}
}
Granholm, S. L. 1983 Bias in density estimates due to movement of birds Condor 85:243--248     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Gra83,
  author = {Granholm, S. L.},
  title = {Bias in density estimates due to movement of birds},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {243--248}
}
Granjon, L., Cosson, J. F., Judas, J. & Ringuet, S. 1996 Influence of tropical rainforest fragmentation on mammal communities in French Guiana: short-term effects. Acta Oecologica 17:673--684      
BibTeX:
@article{Graetal96,
  author = {Granjon, L. and Cosson, J. F. and Judas, J. and Ringuet, S.},
  title = {Influence of tropical rainforest fragmentation on mammal communities in {F}rench {G}uiana: short-term effects.},
  journal = {Acta Oecologica},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {673--684}
}
Grant, T. J. & Doherty, P. F. 2007 Monitoring of the flat-tailed horned lizard with methods incorporating detection probability Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1050--1056   URL    
Abstract: Difficulty in monitoring the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) has led to controversy over its conservation status. The difficulty in detecting this species has discouraged large-scale estimates of abundance and led to uncertainty over whether the species exists in population sizes of sufficient size for long-term persistence. We incorporated detection probability into monitoring of this species using closed mark&#8211;recapture and distance-sampling methods. Density estimation from mark&#8211;recapture abundance estimates was improved using an estimate of the proportion of time lizards were on the plot. We estimated the probability of detection on the line for distance sampling and adjusted density estimates accordingly. We estimated the populations of the Yuha Basin Management Area in 2002 and the East Mesa Management Area, Imperial County, California, USA, in 2003 to be 25,514 (95&#37; CI 14,444&#8211;38,970) and 42,619 (95&#37; CI 23,161&#8211;67,639), respectively. Two estimates of detection probability on the line in distance sampling by different methods were 0.45 and 0.65. Density estimates derived from distance analyses for 3 East Mesa Management Area plots and the Yuha Basin Management Area were 1.55 per ha (95&#37; CI 0.64&#8211;3.76) and 0.41 per ha (95&#37; CI 0.22&#8211;0.7), respectively. These are the first large-scale estimates of abundance and density for P. mcallii.
BibTeX:
@article{GRANT2007,
  author = {Grant, Tyler J. And Doherty, Paul F.},
  title = {Monitoring of the flat-tailed horned lizard with methods incorporating detection probability},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1050--1056
},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2193%2F2005-681}
}
Greene, T. Distance sampling populations of New Zealand birds - Estimating kaka and kereru abundance  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Greene,
  author = {Terry Greene},
  title = {Distance sampling populations of New Zealand birds - Estimating kaka and kereru abundance}
}
Greene, T., Jones, A., Dennis, G. & Sachtleben, T. 2010 Distance sampling to determine kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) density within Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34:297-305     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2010,
  author = {Terry Greene and Alan Jones and Gillian Dennis and Thalia Sachtleben},
  title = {Distance sampling to determine kaka (\textit{Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis}) density within {Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora}},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {297-305}
}
Gregory, C. J., Dinsmore, S. J., Powell, L. A. & Jorgensen, J. G. 2012 Estimating the abundance of Long-billed Curlews in Nebraska Journal of Field Ornithology 83:122--129   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Gregory2012,
  author = {Gregory, Cory J. and Dinsmore, Stephen J. and Powell, Larkin A. and Jorgensen, Joel G.},
  title = {Estimating the abundance of Long-billed Curlews in Nebraska},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {122--129},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2012.00362.x}
}
Gregory, R. D. & Baillie, S. R. 1998 Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds Journal of Applied Ecology 35:785--799      
Abstract: 1. Large-scale habitat use of eight species of breeding birds was considered using data collected across Britain. The species were skylark Alauda arvensis (L.), dunnock Prunella modularis (L.), blackbird Turdus merula (L.), song thrush Turdus philomelos (L.), starling Sturnus vulgaris (L.), linnet Carduelis cannabina (L.), bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula (L.) and reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus (L.). All are linked by roughly synchronous population declines over the last 25 years in southern Britain (and mostly in farmland landscapes). Discussion is limited to the conservation status of these species. 2. Breeding densities were estimated for broad habitat types and these were used to estimate population sizes within habitat types. Confidence limits on the estimates were derived using a bootstrap procedure. 3. For most species considered, farmland holds a high proportion of their population (in excess of 50% for four species), reflecting the predominance of this land use across Britain. This suggests that sympathetic changes in farming practices are likely to provide the best mechanism for improving the status of these species. 4. Substantial proportions of particular species occur outside farmland, but different species occur in different habitats. A considerable proportion of skylarks occur on upland moor, bullfinches in wooded habitats, and reed buntings in riparian habitats. Conservation of this group of species thus requires appropriate management of the wider countryside, including their main habitats. 5. Habitats associated with human habitation hold > 20% of the British populations of blackbird, song thrush and starling, and considerable numbers of other species. The management of parks, gardens and other 'green space' may have an important impact on their populations and should not be neglected by conservationists.
BibTeX:
@article{Gregory1998,
  author = {Gregory, R. D. and Baillie, S. R.},
  title = {Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {35},
  number = {5},
  pages = {785--799}
}
Gregory, S. K. 2005 Comparison of density estimators for white-tailed deer using aerial thermal infrared videography  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Gregory2005,
  author = {Gregory, S. K.},
  title = {Comparison of density estimators for white-tailed deer using aerial thermal infrared videography},
  school = {University of Arkansas},
  year = {2005}
}
Grigg, G. C., Pople, A. R. & Beard, L. A. 1997 Application of an ultralight aircraft to aerial surveys of kangaroos on grazing properties Wildlife Research 24:359--372      
BibTeX:
@article{Grietal97,
  author = {Grigg, G. C. and Pople, A. R. and Beard, L. A.},
  title = {Application of an ultralight aircraft to aerial surveys of kangaroos on grazing properties},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {359--372}
}
Gross, J. E., Stoddart, L. C. & Wagner, F. H. 1974 Demographic analysis of a northern Utah jackrabbit population Wildlife Monographs 40:1--68      
BibTeX:
@article{Groetal74,
  author = {Gross, J. E. and Stoddart, L. C. and Wagner, F. H.},
  title = {Demographic analysis of a northern {U}tah jackrabbit population},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1--68}
}
Guenzel, R. J. 1997 Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gue97,
  author = {Guenzel, R. J.},
  title = {Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling},
  year = {1997}
}
Guix, J. C., Martín, M. & Manõsa, S. 1999 Conservation status of parrot populations in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil Biodiversity and Conservation 8:1079--1088      
Abstract: A census of four species of syntopic parrots was carried out using distance sampling methods on Sao Sebastiao island, SE Brazil. Most of the 33 593 ha island is covered by mature and secondary Atlantic rainforest. Almost 80% of these forests are within the Ilhabela Park. Although the species counted have marked differences in size and weight, density (individuals/km2) and estimated population size in 23 500 ha of well-preserved forests were similar: Amazona farinosa (13.82 ± 5.94; 3247 ± 1395), Pionus maximiliani (15.79 ± 7.04; 3712 ± 1654), Brotogeris tirica (15.05 ± 4.87; 3537 ± 1143) and Pyrrhura frontalis (13.06 ± 5.53; 3068 ± 1298). Encounter rates of Forpus crassirostris and Pionopsitta pileata were very low, which suggests that there is only a small population of these species on the island. The Sao Sebastiao forests still support healthy populations of parrots. Although woodpecker population estimates on the island are large enough to provide nesting sites for parrots, competition for holes with other secondary cavity nesters such as toucans, flycatchers and tytiras, and the selective cutting of dead trees for canoe construction, which is a common practice on the island, may limit hole availability for parrots.
BibTeX:
@article{Guix1999,
  author = {Guix, J. C. and Mart{\'i}n, M. and Man{\~o}sa, S.},
  title = {Conservation status of parrot populations in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {8},
  number = {8},
  pages = {1079--1088}
}
Gunnlaugsson, T. & Sigurjónsson, J. 1990 NASS-87: estimation of whale abundance based on observations made on board Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels Report of the International Whaling Commission 40:571--580      
BibTeX:
@article{GunSig90,
  author = {Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Sigurj\'onsson, J.},
  title = {{NASS}-87: estimation of whale abundance based on observations made on board {I}celandic and {F}aroese survey vessels},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {571--580}
}
Gunnlaugsson, T., Víkingsson, G. & Pike, D. 2009 Combined line-transect and cue-count estimate of sperm whale abundance in the North Atlantic, from Icelandic NASS-2001 shipboard survey NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 7:73--80.      
BibTeX:
@article{Gunnlaugsson2009,
  author = {Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Víkingsson, G.A. and Pike, D.G.},
  title = {Combined line-transect and cue-count estimate of sperm whale abundance in the North Atlantic, from Icelandic NASS-2001 shipboard survey},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {73--80.}
}
Gurnell, J., Lurz, P. & Pepper, H. 2001 Practical techniques for surveying and monitoring squirrels  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gurnell2001,
  author = {Gurnell, J. and Lurz,P. and H. Pepper},
  title = {Practical techniques for surveying and monitoring squirrels},
  year = {2001}
}
Guthery, F. S. 1988 Line transect sampling of bobwhite density on rangeland: evaluation and recommendations Wildlife Society Bulletin 16:193--203      
BibTeX:
@article{Gut88,
  author = {Guthery, F. S.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of bobwhite density on rangeland: evaluation and recommendations},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {193--203}
}
Guthery, F. S. & Mecozzi, G. E. 2008 Developing the concept of estimating bobwhite density with pointing dogs Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1175--1180      
BibTeX:
@article{Guthery2008,
  author = {Fred S. Guthery and Grant E. Mecozzi},
  title = {Developing the concept of estimating bobwhite density with pointing dogs},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1175--1180}
}
Gutzwiller, K. J. & Marcum, H. A. 1997 Bird reactions to observer clothing color: Implications for distance-sampling techniques Journal of Wildlife Management 61:935--947      
Abstract: The species-confidence hypothesis asserts that birds prefer mates whose colors match those of their species and avoid potential mates whose colors are atypical of conspecifics. Earlier point-count research indicated this mate-choice hypothesis also may explain avian reactions to observer clothing color. In central Texas, during January and February 1993, we tested further whether the species-confidence hypothesis holds for reactions to observer clothing color by determining how close an investigator could get to individuals before they flushed (approach distance) and how long individuals remained visible near their initial flush point (detectability period). The same investigator experimentally wore or did not wear a hunter-orange vest, which some wildlife biologists wear as a safety precaution during hunting-season field studies. The vest did not affect approach distance for species with red or orange on their bodies (American robin [Turdus migratorius], P = 0.247; northern cardinal [Cardinalis cardinalis], P = 0.196: ruby-crowned kinglet [Regulus calendula], P = 0.434; red-bellied woodpecker [Melanerpes carolinus], P = 0.113). In contrast, approach distances for species without red or orange were longer when the vest was worn than when it was not worn (Carolina chickadee [Parus carolinensis], P = 0.032; northern mockingbird [Mimus polyglottos], P = 0.033; yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], P = 0.001). Differences in detectability period between vest conditions depended on air temperature for American robins (P = 0.003) and on the variation in visibility within habitats for northern cardinals (P < 0.001). Detectability period was shorter when the vest was worn than when it was not worn for Carolina chickadees (P = 0.057) and yellow-rumped warblers (P = 0.060). Thus, for several species this matechoice hypothesis seems to apply to garment color as well. Some species' reactions demonstrated that, if birds respond significantly to clothing color, important assumptions of distance-sampling techniques used to estimate avian richness, density, and abundance will be violated, and these parameters will be underestimated. Wildlife scientists will be more likely to draw valid inferences and recommend effective management practices from avian data gathered via distance-sampling methods if reactions to clothing color are precluded.
BibTeX:
@article{Gutzwiller1997,
  author = {Gutzwiller, K. J. and Marcum, H. A.},
  title = {Bird reactions to observer clothing color: Implications for distance-sampling techniques},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {61},
  number = {3},
  pages = {935--947}
}
Hüttmann, F. 2002 The first international DISTANCE sampling conference at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, July 30 to August 3, 2001 Zeitschrift fur JagdwissenschaftErste internationale DISTANCE sampling konferenz, gehalten an der University of St. Andrews, Schottland, 30. Juli bis 3. August 2001 48:66--67      
BibTeX:
@article{Huttmann2002,
  author = {H{\"u}ttmann, F.},
  title = {The first international DISTANCE sampling conference at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, July 30 to August 3, 2001},
  booktitle = {Erste internationale DISTANCE sampling konferenz, gehalten an der University of St. Andrews, Schottland, 30. Juli bis 3. August 2001},
  journal = {Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {66--67}
}
Högmander, H. 1995 Methods of Spatial Statistics in Monitoring Wildlife Populations  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hog95,
  author = {H\"{o}gmander, H.},
  title = {Methods of Spatial Statistics in Monitoring Wildlife Populations},
  school = {University of Jyv\"{a}skyl\"{a}},
  year = {1995}
}
Högmander, H. 1991 A random field approach to transect counts of wildlife populations Biometrical Journal 33:1013--1023      
BibTeX:
@article{Hog91,
  author = {H\"{o}gmander, H.},
  title = {A random field approach to transect counts of wildlife populations},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1013--1023}
}
Hagen, G. & Schweder, T. 1995 Point clustering of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic Whales, Seals, Fish and Man :27--33      
BibTeX:
@incollection{HagSch95,
  author = {Hagen, G. and Schweder, T.},
  title = {Point clustering of minke whales in the northeastern {A}tlantic},
  booktitle = {Whales, Seals, Fish and Man},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science B. V.},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {27--33}
}
Hain, J. H. W., Ellis, S. L., Kenney, R. D. & Slay, C. K. 1999 Sightability of right whales in coastal waters of the southeastern United States with implications for the aerial monitoring program Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :191--207      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Haietal99,
  author = {Hain, J. H. W and Ellis, S. L and Kenney, R. D. and Slay, C. K.},
  title = {Sightability of right whales in coastal waters of the southeastern {U}nited {S}tates with implications for the aerial monitoring program},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {191--207}
}
Hakamada, T., Matsuoka, K. & Nishiwaki, S. 2005 An update of Antarctic minke whales abundance estimate based on JARPA data including comparison to IDCR/SOWER estimates  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hakamada2005,
  author = {Hakamada, T. and Matsuoka, K. and S. Nishiwaki},
  title = {An update of {Antarctic minke whales abundance estimate based on JARPA data including comparison to IDCR/SOWER estimates}},
  year = {2005},
  number = {JA/J05/JR 4}
}
Hall, A. M. 2004 Seasonal abundance, distribution and prey species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Southern Vancouver Island waters  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Hall2004,
  author = {Hall, A. M.},
  title = {Seasonal abundance, distribution and prey species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Southern Vancouver Island waters},
  school = {University of British Columbia},
  year = {2004}
}
Hamel, P. B. 1990 Response to Tomiatojc and Verner The Auk 107:451--453      
BibTeX:
@article{Ham90,
  author = {Hamel, P. B.},
  title = {Response to {T}omiatojc and {V}erner},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {107},
  pages = {451--453}
}
Hamel, P. B. 1984 Comparison of variable circular-plot and spot-map censusing methods in temperate forest Ornis Scandinavica 15:266--274      
BibTeX:
@article{Ham84,
  author = {Hamel, P. B.},
  title = {Comparison of variable circular-plot and spot-map censusing methods in temperate forest},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {266--274}
}
Hamel, P. B., Smith, W. P. & Wahl, J. W. 1993 Wintering bird populations of fragmented forest habitat in the Central Basin, Tennessee Biological Conservation 66:107--115      
BibTeX:
@article{Hametal93,
  author = {Hamel, P. B. and Smith, W. P. and Wahl, J. W.},
  title = {Wintering bird populations of fragmented forest habitat in the {C}entral {B}asin, {T}ennessee},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {107--115}
}
Hammond, P. S. 1984 An investigation into the effects of different techniques of smearing the IWC/IDCR minke whale sighting data and the use of different models to estimate density of schools Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:301--307      
BibTeX:
@article{Hamm84,
  author = {Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {An investigation into the effects of different techniques of smearing the {IWC/IDCR} minke whale sighting data and the use of different models to estimate density of schools},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {301--307}
}
Hammond, P. S., Berggren, P., Benke, H., Borchers, D. L., Collet, A., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Heimlich, S., Hiby, A. R., Leopold, M. F. & Øien, N. 2002 Abundance of Harbour Porpoise and Other Cetaceans in the North Sea and Adjacent Waters The Journal of Applied Ecology 39:361--376      
Abstract: 1. The status of small cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters has been of concern for many years. Shipboard and aerial line transect surveys were conducted to provide accurate and precise estimates of abundance as a basis for conservation strategy in European waters. 2. The survey, known as SCANS (Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea), was conducted in summer 1994 and designed to generate precise and unbiased abundance estimates. Thus the intensity of survey was high, and data collection and analysis methods allowed for the probability of detection of animals on the transect line being less than unity and, for shipboard surveys, also allowed for animal movement in response to the survey platform. 3. Shipboard transects covered 20 000 km in an area of 890 000 km$^2$. Aerial transects covered 7000 km in an area of 150 000 km$^2$. 4. Three species dominated the data. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena were encountered throughout the survey area except in the Channel and the southern North Sea. Whitebeaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata were found mainly in the north-western North Sea. 5. Phocoena phocoena abundance for the entire survey area was estimated as 341 366 [coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 260 000-449 000]. The estimated number of B. acutorostrata was 8445 (CV = 0.24; 95% CI 5000-13 500). The estimate for L. albirostris based on confirmed sightings of this species was 7856 (CV = 0.30; 95% CI = 4000-13 000). When Atlantic whitesided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus and Lagenorhynchus spp. sightings were included, this estimate increased to 11 760 (CV = 0.26; 95% CI 5900-18 500). 6. Shortbeaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis were found almost exclusively in the Celtic Sea. Abundance was estimated as 75 450 (CV = 0.67; 95% CI = 23 000-149 000). 7. Current assessments and recommendations by international fora concerning the impact on P. phocoena of bycatch in gillnet fisheries in the North Sea and adjacent waters are based on these estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Hammond2002,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Berggren, P. and Benke, H. and Borchers, D. L. and Collet, A. and Heide-J{\o}rgensen, M. P. and Heimlich, S. and Hiby, A. R. and Leopold, M. F. and {\O}ien, N.},
  title = {Abundance of Harbour Porpoise and Other Cetaceans in the North Sea and Adjacent Waters},
  journal = {The Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {361--376}
}
Hammond, P. S. & Laake, J. L. 1984 Estimates of sperm whale density in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1974--1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:255--258      
BibTeX:
@article{HamLaa84,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimates of sperm whale density in the eastern tropical {P}acific, 1974--1982},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {255--258}
}
Hammond, P. S. & Laake, J. L. 1983 Trends in estimates of abundance of dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) involved in the purse-seine fishery for tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean Report of the International Whaling Commission 33:565--588      
BibTeX:
@article{HamLaa83,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Trends in estimates of abundance of dolphins (\emph{{S}tenella} spp. and \emph{{D}elphinus delphis}) involved in the purse-seine fishery for tunas in the eastern {P}acific {O}cean},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {565--588}
}
Hammond, P. S., Macleod, K., Berggren, P., Borchers, D. L., Burt, L., Cañadas, A., Desportes, G., Donovan, G. P., Gilles, A., Gillespie, D., Gordon, J., Hiby, L., Kuklik, I., Leaper, R., Lehnert, K., Leopold, M., Lovell, P., Øien, N., Paxton, C. G., Ridoux, V., Rogan, E., Samarra, F., Scheidat, M., Sequeira, M., Siebert, U., Skov, H., Swift, R., Tasker, M. L., Teilmann, J., Canneyt, O. V. & Vázquez, J. A. 2013 Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management Biological Conservation  164:107-122   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Hammond2013107,
  author = {Philip S. Hammond and Kelly Macleod and Per Berggren and David L. Borchers and Louise Burt and Ana Cañadas and Geneviève Desportes and Greg P. Donovan and Anita Gilles and Douglas Gillespie and Jonathan Gordon and Lex Hiby and Iwona Kuklik and Russell Leaper and Kristina Lehnert and Mardik Leopold and Phil Lovell and Nils Øien and Charles G.M. Paxton and Vincent Ridoux and Emer Rogan and Filipa Samarra and Meike Scheidat and Marina Sequeira and Ursula Siebert and Henrik Skov and René Swift and Mark L. Tasker and Jonas Teilmann and Olivier Van Canneyt and José Antonio Vázquez},
  title = {Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management },
  journal = {Biological Conservation },
  year = {2013},
  volume = {164},
  pages = {107-122},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320713001055},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.04.010}
}
Hamrick, R., Pirgalioglu, T., Gunduz, S. & Carroll, J. 2005 Feral donkey Equus asinus populations on the Karpaz peninsula, Cyprus European Journal of Wildlife Research 51:108--116      
Abstract: Numerous researchers have documented the adverse effects of feral donkeys Equus asinus introduced to semi-arid ecosystems. With the release of feral donkeys and potential increasing populations in natural habitats in northern Cyprus, there is concern for negative impacts on vegetation and native species. In the north of the island, there has been only one published study of feral donkey populations, and population estimators were relatively subjective. We estimated feral donkey populations on the Karpaz Peninsula using line transect surveys and quantitative distance sampling estimators. We stratified the sampling by using 11 sample units within the study area. We evaluated potential biases associated with habitat, topography, and perpendicular distance from the transect line and found that these variables did not bias donkey detections during our surveys. Using program DISTANCE, we found that a hazard rate cosine model was the best model that described our distance data based on model selection criterion (Akaike's Information Criteria adjusted for small sample bias). Estimated effective strip width was 280.19 m and detection probability was 0.47 with this model. Estimated donkey density was 6.7 donkeys/km 2, and estimated total abundance was 800 donkeys for the entire 132.5 km2 study area. Of 95 donkey groups detected: 16% were detected in agricultural habitats with flat topography, 9% were detected in agricultural habitats with sloped topography, 24% were detected in shrub/forest habitats with flat topography, and 51% were detected in shrub/forest habitats with sloped topography. Of 102 behavioral observations recorded (multiple behaviors were detected in groups), frequencies of behaviors were 1% bedded, 70% standing, 22% grazing, 6% moving, and 2% other. Our estimated donkey population density in the Karpaz Peninsula was >2 times densities reported in arid regions of the United States and Australia, but slightly lower than earlier density estimates reported for the Karpaz region. These estimates of feral donkey populations in the Karpaz Peninsula provide a quantitative baseline from which to make population management decisions. © Springer-Verlag 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Hamrick2005,
  author = {Hamrick, R.G. and Pirgalioglu, T. and Gunduz, S. and Carroll, J.P.},
  title = {Feral donkey \textit{Equus asinus} populations on the Karpaz peninsula, Cyprus},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {51},
  number = {2},
  pages = {108--116}
}
Handel, C., Tibbetts, L., Cady, M., Ruthrauff, D. & Thompson, B. Quantifying and Correcting Measurement Error in Point Transect Counts  :      
BibTeX:
@talk{Handel,
  author = {Colleen Handel and Lee Tibbetts and Melissa Cady and Dan Ruthrauff and Bill Thompson},
  title = {Quantifying and Correcting Measurement Error in Point Transect Counts}
}
Hanni, D. 2005 Sand Creek Massacre national historic site inventory and monitoring: final report  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hanni2005,
  author = {David Hanni},
  title = {Sand Creek Massacre national historic site inventory and monitoring: final report},
  year = {2005}
}
Hanowski, J. M. & Niemi, G. J. 1995 Experimental Design Considerations for Establishing an Off-Road, Habitat-Specific Bird Monitoring Program Using Point-Counts  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hanowski1995,
  author = {JoAnn M. Hanowski and Gerald J. Niemi},
  title = {Experimental Design Considerations for Establishing an Off-Road, Habitat-Specific Bird Monitoring Program Using Point-Counts},
  year = {1995},
  number = {PSW-GTR-149}
}
Hanowski, J. M., Niemi, G. J. & Blake, J. G. 1990 Statistical perspectives and experimental design when counting birds on line transects Condor 92:326--335     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Hanetal90,
  author = {Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Blake, J. G.},
  title = {Statistical perspectives and experimental design when counting birds on line transects},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {326--335}
}
Harden, R. H., M. R. J. & Milledge, D. R. 1986 An evaluation of the strip transect method for censusing bird communities in forests Australian Wildlife Research 13:203--211      
BibTeX:
@article{Haretal86,
  author = {Harden, R. H., Muir, R. J. and Milledge, D. R.},
  title = {An evaluation of the strip transect method for censusing bird communities in forests},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {203--211}
}
Hardy, P. & Morrison, M. 2001 Nest site selection by Elf Owls in the Sonoran Desert Wilson Bulletin 113:23--32     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Hardy2001,
  author = {Hardy, P.C. and Morrison, M.L.},
  title = {Nest site selection by Elf Owls in the Sonoran Desert},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {113},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23--32}
}
Harihar, A., Pandav, B. & Goyal, S. P. 2009 Responses of tiger (Panthera tigris) and their prey to removal of anthropogenic influences in Rajaji National Park, India European Journal of Wildlife Research 55:97--105     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Harihar2009,
  author = {Abishek Harihar and Bivash Pandav and Surendra P. Goyal},
  title = {Responses of tiger (\textit{Panthera tigris}) and their prey to removal of anthropogenic influences in {Rajaji National Park, India}},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {97--105}
}
Harmata, A. R., Podruzny, K. M., Zelenak, J. R. & Morrison, M. L. 2000 Passage rates and timing of bird migration in Montana American Midland Naturalist 143:30--40      
BibTeX:
@article{Haretal00,
  author = {Harmata, A. R. and Podruzny, K. M. and Zelenak, J. R. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Passage rates and timing of bird migration in Montana},
  journal = {American Midland Naturalist},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {143},
  pages = {30--40}
}
Harmata, A. R., Podruzny, K. M., Zelenak, J. R. & Morrison, M. L. 1999 Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:44--52      
BibTeX:
@article{HAR99,
  author = {Harmata, A. R. and Podruzny, K. M. and Zelenak, J. R. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {44--52}
}
Harris, D., Matias, L., Thomas, L., Harwood, J. & Geissler, W. H. 2013 Applying distance sampling to fin whale calls recorded by single seismic instruments in the northeast Atlantic The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134:3522-3535   DOI URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{:/content/asa/journal/jasa/134/5/10.1121/1.4821207,
  author = {Harris, Danielle and Matias, Luis and Thomas, Len and Harwood, John and Geissler, Wolfram H.},
  title = {Applying distance sampling to fin whale calls recorded by single seismic instruments in the northeast Atlantic},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {134},
  number = {5},
  pages = {3522-3535},
  url = {http://scitation.aip.org/content/asa/journal/jasa/134/5/10.1121/1.4821207},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4821207}
}
Harris, R. B. 1986 Reliability of trend lines obtained from variable counts Journal of Wildlife Management 50:165--171     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Har86,
  author = {Harris, R. B.},
  title = {Reliability of trend lines obtained from variable counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {165--171}
}
Harris, R. B. & Burnham, K. P. 2002 On estimating wildlife densities from line transect data Acta Zoological Sinica 48:812-818     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Harris2002,
  author = {Harris, R. B. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {On estimating wildlife densities from line transect data},
  journal = {Acta Zoological Sinica},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {812-818},
  note = {preprint}
}
Hashimoto, C. 1995 Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda --- comparison between methods with nest counts Primates 36:477--488      
BibTeX:
@article{Has95,
  author = {Hashimoto, C.},
  title = {Population census of the chimpanzees in the {K}alinzu {F}orest, {U}ganda --- comparison between methods with nest counts},
  journal = {Primates},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {477--488}
}
Hastie, G. D., Swift, R. J., Gordon, J. C., Slesser, G. & Turrell, W. R. 2003 Sperm whale distribution and seasonal density in the Faroe Shetland Channel Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:247--252     PDF  
Abstract: Results from previous surveys suggest that an area of the northeast Atlantic, the Faroe Shetland Channel, is important for cetaceans. This study utilised passive acoustic survey techniques to evaluate the density of sperm whales in the Channel. Two-week surveys were carried out during oceanographic cruises in May and October 2001, and May 2002. A two hydrophone array was towed behind the vessel throughout the majority of the survey routes and was monitored by a two-person team and by software designed to automatically detect and measure bearings to whales. Distances of individual sperm whales from the trackline were determined using target motion analysis. Standard line transect techniques were applied to calculate the density of whales during surveys. The effects of sea conditions and survey vessel on the ability to detect whales were tested; the encounter rate and effective stripwidth (esw) were estimated independently for each sea state and for each of the vessels. A total of 79 individual whales were detected, and their distances from the trackline were calculated. As a probable result of insufficient sample size and a small effects size, neither the esw nor the encounter rates varied significantly with sea state or between the two survey vessels. The density of sperm whales during each of the surveys was estimated to be 2.05, 0.52 and 1.75 whales per 1,000km2 for the May 2001, October 2001 and May 2002 surveys respectively. Sperm whales were distributed across the majority of the Faroe Shetland Channel. This study has provided the basis for meaningful hypothesis generation in future studies and to gain a better understanding of the factors underlying the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of sperm whales in this area; data on oceanographic, biological and anthropogenic determinants should now be examined.
BibTeX:
@article{Hastie2003,
  author = {Gordon D. Hastie and René J. Swift and Jonathan C.D. Gordon and George Slesser and William R. Turrell},
  title = {Sperm whale distribution and seasonal density in the {Faroe Shetland Channel}},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {247--252}
}
Haukioja, E. 1968 Reliability of the line survey method in bird census with reference to reed bunting and sedge warbler Ornis Fennica 45:105--113      
BibTeX:
@article{Hau68,
  author = {Haukioja, E.},
  title = {Reliability of the line survey method in bird census with reference to reed bunting and sedge warbler},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {105--113}
}
Hayes, R. J. 1977 A critical review of line transect methods  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Hay77,
  author = {Hayes, R. J.},
  title = {A critical review of line transect methods},
  school = {University of Edinburgh},
  year = {1977}
}
Hayes, R. J. & Buckland, S. T. 1983 Radial-distance models for the line-transect method Biometrics 39:29--42      
BibTeX:
@article{HayBuc83,
  author = {Hayes, R. J. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Radial-distance models for the line-transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {29--42}
}
Hayne, D. W. 1949 An examination of the strip census method for estimating animal populations Journal of Wildlife Management 13:145--157      
BibTeX:
@article{Hay49,
  author = {Hayne, D. W.},
  title = {An examination of the strip census method for estimating animal populations},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1949},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {145--157}
}
Healy, W. M. & Welsh, C. J. E. 1992 Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:83--90      
BibTeX:
@article{HeaWel92,
  author = {Healy, W. M. and Welsh, C. J. E.},
  title = {Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {83--90}
}
Heckman, N. & Rice, J. 1997 Line transects of two-dimensional random fields: estimation and design Canadian Journal of Statistics 25:481--501      
BibTeX:
@article{HecRic97,
  author = {Heckman, N. and Rice, J.},
  title = {Line transects of two-dimensional random fields: estimation and design},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Statistics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {481--501}
}
Hedges, S., Tyson, M., Sitompul, A., Kinnaird, M., Gunaryadi, D. & Aslan 2005 Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung Province, Sumatra, Indonesia Biological Conservation 124:35--48      
BibTeX:
@article{Hedges2005,
  author = {Hedges, S. and Tyson, M.J. and Sitompul, A.F. and Kinnaird, M.F. and Gunaryadi, D. and Aslan},
  title = {Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (\textit{Elephas maximus}) in Lampung Province, Sumatra, Indonesia},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124},
  number = {1},
  pages = {35--48}
}
Hedley, S., Reilly, S., Borberg, J., Holland, R., Hewitt, R., Watkins, J., Naganobu, M. & Sushin, V. Modelling whale distribution: a preliminary analysis of data collected on the CCAMLR-IWC Krill Synoptic Survey, 2000  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hedley,
  author = {S. Hedley and S. Reilly and J. Borberg and R. Holland and R. Hewitt and J. Watkins and M. Naganobu and V. Sushin},
  title = {Modelling whale distribution: a preliminary analysis of data collected on the CCAMLR-IWC Krill Synoptic Survey, 2000},
  number = {SC/53/E9}
}
Hedley, S. L. 2000 Modelling heterogeneity in cetacean surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{HED00,
  author = {Hedley,S. L.},
  title = {Modelling heterogeneity in cetacean surveys},
  school = {Univerity of St. Andrews},
  year = {2000}
}
Hedley, S. L. & Buckland, S. T. 2004 Spatial models for line transect sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 9:181--199     PDF  
Abstract: This article develops methods for fitting spatial models to line transect data. These allow animal density to be related to topographical, environmental, habitat, and other spatial variables, helping wildlife managers to identify the factors that affect abundance. They also enable estimation of abundance for any subarea of interest within the surveyed region, and potentially yield estimates of abundance from sightings surveys for which the survey design could not be randomized, such as surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity. The methods are illustrated through analyses of data from a shipboard sightings survey of minke whales in the Antarctic. © 2004 American Statistical Association and the International Biometric Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Hedley2004,
  author = {Hedley, S. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Spatial models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181--199}
}
Hedley, S. L., Buckland, S. T. & Borchers, D. L. 1999 Spatial modelling from line transect data Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1:255--264      
BibTeX:
@article{HED99,
  author = {Hedley,S. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Spatial modelling from line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {255--264}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. & Reeves, R. 1996 Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas , abundance off West Greenland ICES Journal of Marine Science 53:61-72(20)   URL   PDF  
Abstract:

Aerial surveys of belugas, or white whales, Delphinapterus leucas , were conducted off West Greenland in March 1993 and 1994. These surveys were designed to permit comparisons with similar surveys in 1981, 1982, and 1991. Differences in methods between the surveys in the early 1980s and those in the 1990s should mean that the 1990s surveys were, if anything, more efficient than the 1980s surveys. Weighted linear regressions of strip-census estimates of the relative abundance of belugas showed a significant decline from 1981 to 1994. While annual variability in ice conditions and other unknown factors may have had some local or small-scale effects on the movements and distribution of belugas off West Greenland, it is unlikely that these effects would account for the apparent decline in relative abundance. The most reasonable conclusion is that the stock size has declined considerably during the past 13 years, perhaps by as much as 62%.

BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Jorgensen:1996:1054-3139:61,
  author = {Heide-J{\o}rgensen, M.P. and Reeves, R.R.},
  title = {Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas , abundance off West Greenland},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {61-72(20)},
  url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ap/jm/1996/00000053/00000001/art00006}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. & Acquarone, M. 2002 Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 4:191--210      
BibTeX:
@article{HeiAcq02,
  author = {Heide-J{\o}rgensen, M. P and Acquarone, M.},
  title = {Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off {W}est {G}reenland},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {191--210}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Laidre, K., Borchers, D., Samarra, F. & Stern, H. 2007 Increasing abundance of bowhead whales in West Greenland Biology Letters 3:277--280     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2007,
  author = {Mads Peter Heide-J{\o}rgensen and Kristin Laidre and David Borchers and Filipa Samarra and Harry Stern},
  title = {Increasing abundance of bowhead whales in West Greenland},
  journal = {Biology Letters},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {277--280}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Lassen, H., Teilmann, J. & Davis, R. A. 1993 An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, and narwhals, Monodon monoceros, off West Greenland Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2323--2335      
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen1993,
  author = {Heide-J{\o}rgensen, M. P. and Lassen, H. and Teilmann, J. and Davis, R. A.},
  title = {An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas,{ \textit{Delphinapterus leucas}, and narwhals, \textit{Monodon monoceros}, off West Greenland}},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {2323--2335}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Mosbech, A., Teilmann, J., Benke, H. & Schultz, W. 1992 Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) densities obtained from aerial surveys north of Fyn and in the Bay of Kiel Ophelia 35:133--146      
BibTeX:
@article{Heietal92,
  author = {Heide-J{\o}rgensen, M. P. and Mosbech, A. and Teilmann, J. and Benke, H. and Schultz, W.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise (\emph{{P}hocoena phocoena}) densities obtained from aerial surveys north of {F}yn and in the {B}ay of {K}iel},
  journal = {Ophelia},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {133--146}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Borchers, D. L., Witting, L., Simon, M. J., Laidre, K. L., Rosing-Asvid, A. & Pike, D. 2008 Estimates of large whale abundance in West Greenland waters from an aerial survey in 2005 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 10:119--129     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2008a,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and D. L. Borchers and L. Witting and M. J. Simon and K. L. Laidre and A. Rosing-Asvid and D. Pike},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance in West Greenland waters from an aerial survey in 2005},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {119--129}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Laidre, K. L., Borchers, D., Marques, T. A., Stern, H. & Simon, M. 2010 The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland Polar Research 29:198--208   DOI   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2010,
  author = {M. P. Heide-Jørgensen and K. L. Laidre and D. Borchers and T. A. Marques and H. Stern and M. Simon},
  title = {The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (\textit{Delphinapterus leucas}) in {West Greenland}},
  journal = {Polar Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {198--208},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1751-8369.2009.00142.x}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Laidre, K. L., Burt, M. L., Borchers, D. L., Marques, T. A., Hansen, R. G., Rasmussen, M. & Fossette, S. 2010 Abundance Of Narwhals (Monodon Monoceros) On The Hunting Grounds In Greenland Journal of Mammalogy 91:1135--1151   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensena,
  author = {M. P. Heide-Jørgensen and K. L. Laidre and M. L. Burt and D. L. Borchers and T. A. Marques and R. G. Hansen and M. Rasmussen and S. Fossette},
  title = {Abundance Of Narwhals (\textit{Monodon Monoceros}) On The Hunting Grounds In Greenland},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {91},
  pages = {1135--1151},
  doi = {10.1644/09-MAMM-A-198.1}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Simon, M. J. & Laidre, K. L. 2007 Estimates of large whale abundance in Greenland in September 2005 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9:95--104     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen,
  author = {M. P. Heide-Jørgensen and M. J. Simon and K. L. Laidre},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance in Greenland in September 2005},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {95--104}
}
Hein, E. W. 1997 Demonstration of line transect methodologies to estimate urban gray squirrel density Environmental Management 21:943--947      
Abstract: Because studies estimating density of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) have been labor intensive and costly, I demonstrate the use of line transect surveys to estimate gray squirrel density and determine the costs of conducting surveys to achieve precise estimates. Density estimates are based on four transects that were surveyed five times from 30 June to 9 July 1994. Using the program DISTANCE, I estimated there were 4.7 (95% Cl = 1.86-11.92) gray squirrels/ha on the Clemson University campus. Eleven additional surveys would have decreased the percent coefficient of variation from 30% to 20% and would have cost approximately $114. Estimating urban gray squirrel density using line transect surveys is cost effective and can provide unbiased estimates of density, provided that none of the assumptions of distance sampling theory are violated.
BibTeX:
@article{Hein1997,
  author = {Hein, E. W.},
  title = {Demonstration of line transect methodologies to estimate urban gray squirrel density},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {21},
  number = {6},
  pages = {943--947}
}
Hemingway, P. 1971 Field trials of the line transect method of sampling large populations of herbivores The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation :405--411      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hem71,
  author = {Hemingway, P.},
  title = {Field trials of the line transect method of sampling large populations of herbivores},
  booktitle = {The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation},
  publisher = {Blackwell Scientific Publications},
  year = {1971},
  pages = {405--411}
}
Henrys, P. 2005 Spatial Distance Sampling Modeling of Cetaceans Observed from Platforms of Opportunity  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Henrys2005,
  author = {Henrys, P.},
  title = {Spatial Distance Sampling Modeling of Cetaceans Observed from Platforms of Opportunity},
  school = {St Andrews University},
  year = {2005}
}
van Hensbergen, H. J., Berry, M. P. S. & Juritz, J. 1996 Helicopter-based line transect estimates of some Southern African game populations South African Journal of Wildlife Research 26:81--87      
BibTeX:
@article{vanetal96,
  author = {van Hensbergen, H. J. and Berry, M. P. S. and Juritz, J.},
  title = {Helicopter-based line transect estimates of some {S}outhern {A}frican game populations},
  journal = {South African Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {81--87}
}
Herr, H., Scheidat, M., Lehnert, K. & Siebert, U. 2009 Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data Marine Biology 156:811--820      
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2009,
  author = {Helena Herr and M. Scheidat and K. Lehnert and U. Siebert},
  title = {Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {156},
  pages = {811--820}
}
Herrero, J., serrano, A. G., Prada, C. & Fernández-Arberas, O. 2011 Using block counts and distance sampling to estimate populations of chamois Pirineos. Revista de Ecología de Montaña 166:123--133   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Herrero2011,
  author = {J. Herrero and A. García-serrano and C. Prada and O. Fernández-Arberas},
  title = {Using block counts and distance sampling to estimate populations of chamois},
  journal = {Pirineos. Revista de Ecología de Montaña},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {166},
  pages = {123--133},
  doi = {10.3989/Pirineos.2011.166006}
}
Heydon, M. J. & Bulloh, P. 1997 Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging Journal of Applied Ecology 34:484--496      
BibTeX:
@article{HeyBul97,
  author = {Heydon, M. J. and Bulloh, P.},
  title = {Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {484--496}
}
Heydon, M. J., Reynolds, J. C. & Short, M. J. 2000 Variation in abundance of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) between three regions of rural Britain, in relation to landscape and other variables Journal of Zoology 251:253--264      
Abstract: Spotlight transect surveys with distance sampling were used to estimate spring (pre-breeding) and autumn (post-production) fox Vulpes vulpes densities in three contrasting rural areas of Britain during 1995-97. This was the first attempt in Britain to measure and compare fox densities over large geographical areas (630-1460 km2). Mean post-production fox abundance was estimated to be 0.90/km2, 2.62/km2, and 0.59/km2 in mid-Wales, the east Midlands and East Anglia, falling to pre-breeding levels of 0.41/km2, 1.17/km2, and 0.16/km2 in spring. As relative measures of regional density, these estimates are strongly supported by independent indices of fox abundance, and by the simultaneous survey of two sympatric species, the badger Meles meles and brown hare Lepus europaeus, which demonstrate the absence of any terrain-related bias. Absolute abundance is less easy to verify, but estimates of spring density based on breeding earth censuses support the transect surveys. For two of the three regions, fox density was close to levels predicted by extrapolation on the basis of landscape, but in the third region (East Anglia), fox density was substantially below prediction. Thus, results failed to support a hypothesis that fox abundance can be predicted solely on the basis of landscape and its close correlates. Rather, they favoured a competing hypothesis that an independent factor determines fox abundance in some regions. A likely factor is culling by man.
BibTeX:
@article{Heydon2000,
  author = {Heydon, M. J. and Reynolds, J. C. and Short, M. J.},
  title = {Variation in abundance of foxes \textit{(Vulpes vulpes)} between three regions of rural {B}ritain, in relation to landscape and other variables},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {251},
  number = {2},
  pages = {253--264}
}
Hiby, A. R. 1986 Results of a hazard rate model relevant to experiments on the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:497--498      
BibTeX:
@article{Hib86,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {Results of a hazard rate model relevant to experiments on the 1984/85 {IDCR} minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {497--498}
}
Hiby, A. R. 1985 An approach to estimating population densities of great whales from sighting surveys IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology 2:201--220      
BibTeX:
@article{Hib85,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {An approach to estimating population densities of great whales from sighting surveys},
  journal = {IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {201--220}
}
Hiby, A. R. 1982 Using average number of whales in view to estimate population density Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:562--565      
BibTeX:
@article{Hib82,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {Using average number of whales in view to estimate population density},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {562--565}
}
Hiby, A. R. 1982 The effect of random whale movement on density estimates obtained from whale sighting surveys Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:791-793      
BibTeX:
@article{Hiby1982,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {The effect of random whale movement on density estimates obtained from whale sighting surveys},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {791-793}
}
Hiby, A. R. & Hammond, P. S. 1989 Survey techniques for estimating abundance of cetaceans The Comprehensive Assessment of Whale Stocks: the Early Years :47--80      
BibTeX:
@incollection{HibHam89,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Survey techniques for estimating abundance of cetaceans},
  booktitle = {The Comprehensive Assessment of Whale Stocks: the Early Years},
  publisher = {International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {47--80}
}
Hiby, A. R., Martin, A. R. & Fairfield, F. 1984 IDCR cruise/aerial survey in the north Atlantic 1982: aerial survey Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:633--644      
BibTeX:
@article{Hibetal84,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Martin, A. R. and Fairfield, F.},
  title = {{IDCR} cruise/aerial survey in the north {A}tlantic 1982: aerial survey},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {633--644}
}
Hiby, A. R. & Ward, A. J. 1986 Simulation trials of a cue-counting technique for censusing whale populations Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:471--472      
BibTeX:
@article{HibWar86,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Ward, A. J.},
  title = {Simulation trials of a cue-counting technique for censusing whale populations},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {471--472}
}
Hiby, A. R. & Ward, A. J. 1986 Analysis of cue-counting and blow rate estimation experiments carried out during the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:473--476      
BibTeX:
@article{HiWar86b,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Ward, A. J.},
  title = {Analysis of cue-counting and blow rate estimation experiments carried out during the 1984/85 {IDCR} minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {473--476}
}
Hiby, L. 1999 The objective identification of duplicate sightings in aerial survey for porpoise Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :179--189      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hib99,
  author = {Hiby, L.},
  title = {The objective identification of duplicate sightings in aerial survey for porpoise},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {179--189}
}
Hiby, L. & Krishna, M. 2001 Line transect sampling from a curving path Biometrics 57:727--731      
Abstract: Cutting straight line transects through dense forest is time consuming and expensive when large areas need to be surveyed for rare or highly clustered species. We argue that existing paths or game trails may be suitable as transects for line transect sampling even though they will not, in general, run straight. Formulas and software currently used to estimate local density using perpendicular distance data can be used with closest approach distances measured from curving transects. Suitable paths or trails are those for which the minimum radius of curvature is rarely less than the width of the shoulder in the detection probability function. The use of existing paths carries the risk of bias resulting from unrepresentative sampling of available habitats, and this must be weighed against the increase in coverage available.
BibTeX:
@article{Hiby2001,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Krishna, M.B.},
  title = {Line transect sampling from a curving path},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {727--731}
}
Hiby, L. & Lovell, P. 1998 Using aircraft in tandem formation to estimate abundance of harbour porpoise Biometrics 54:1280--1289      
BibTeX:
@article{HibLov98,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Lovell, P.},
  title = {Using aircraft in tandem formation to estimate abundance of harbour porpoise},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1280--1289}
}
Hiby, L., Ward, A. & Lovell, P. 1989 Analysis of the North Atlantic sightings survey 1987: Aerial survey results Report of the International Whaling Commission 39:447--455      
BibTeX:
@article{HIB89,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Ward, A. and Lovell, P.},
  title = {Analysis of the {N}orth {A}tlantic sightings survey 1987: Aerial survey results},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {447--455}
}
Hidinger, L. A. 1996 Measuring the impacts of ecotourism on animal populations: a case study of Tikal National Park, Guatemala Yale F&ES Bulletin 99:49-59     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Hidinger1996,
  author = {Hidinger, L. A.},
  title = {Measuring the impacts of ecotourism on animal populations: a case study of Tikal National Park, Guatemala},
  journal = {Yale F\&ES Bulletin},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {49-59}
}
Hilário, R., Rodrigues, F., Chiarello, A. & Mourthé, Í. 2012 Can Roads Be Used as Transects for Primate Population Surveys? Folia Primatologica 83:47--55   URL    
Abstract: Line transect distance sampling (LTDS) can be applied to either trails or roads. However, it is likely that sampling along roads might result in biased density estimates. In this paper, we compared the results obtained with LTDS applied on trails and roads for two primate species (Callithrix penicillata and textlessitextgreaterCallicebus nigrifrons)textless/itextgreater to clarify whether roads are appropriate transects to estimate densities. We performed standard LTDS surveys in two nature reserves in south-eastern Brazil. Effective strip width and population density were different between trails and roads for textlessitextgreaterC. penicillatatextless/itextgreater, but not for textlessitextgreaterC. nigrifronstextless/itextgreater. The results suggest that roads are not appropriate for use as transects in primate surveys, at least for some species. Further work is required to fully understand this issue, but in the meantime we recommend that researchers avoid using roads as transects or treat roads and trails as covariates when sampling on roads is unavoidable.
BibTeX:
@article{Hilario2012,
  author = {Hilário, {R.R.} and Rodrigues, {F.H.G.} and Chiarello, {A.G.} and Mourthé, Í.},
  title = {Can Roads Be Used as Transects for Primate Population Surveys?},
  journal = {Folia Primatologica},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {47--55},
  url = {http://www.karger.com/DOI/10.1159/000339805}
}
Hilden, O. & Järvinen, A. 1989 Efficiency of the line-transect method in mountain birch forest Annales Zoologici Fennici 26:185--190      
BibTeX:
@article{HilJAr89,
  author = {Hilden, O. and J\"arvinen, A.},
  title = {Efficiency of the line-transect method in mountain birch forest},
  journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {185--190}
}
Hill, K., Padwe, J., Bejyvagi, C., Bepurangi, A., Jakugi, F., Tykuarangi, R. & Tykuarangi, T. 1997 Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu reserve, Paraguay Conservation Biology 11:1339--1353      
BibTeX:
@article{Hiletal97,
  author = {Hill, K. and Padwe, J. and Bejyvagi, C. and Bepurangi, A. and Jakugi, F. and Tykuarangi, R. and Tykuarangi, T.},
  title = {Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the {M}baracayu reserve, {P}araguay},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {1339--1353}
}
Hines, E. M., Adulyanukosol, K. & Duffus, D. A. 2005 Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance along the Andaman coast of Thailand Marine Mammal Science 21:536-549      
BibTeX:
@article{Hines2005,
  author = {Ellen M. Hines and Kanjana Adulyanukosol and David A. Duffus},
  title = {Dugong (\textit{Dugong dugon}) abundance along the Andaman coast of Thailand},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {536-549}
}
Hobson, K. A., Rempel, R. S., Greenwood, H., Turnbull, B. & Van Wilgenburg, S. L. 2002 Acoustic surveys of birds using electronic recordings: new potential from an omnidirectional microphone system Wildlife Bulletin 30:709--720     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Hobetal02,
  author = {Hobson, K. A and Rempel, R. S and Greenwood, H and Turnbull, B. and Van Wilgenburg, S. L.},
  title = {Acoustic surveys of birds using electronic recordings: new potential from an omnidirectional microphone system},
  journal = {Wildlife Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {709--720}
}
Hoef, J. M. V., Cameron, M. F., Boveng, P. L., London, J. M. & Moreland, E. E. 2013 A spatial hierarchical model for abundance of three ice-associated seal species in the eastern Bering Sea Statistical Methodology  :   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{2013,
  author = {Jay M. Ver Hoef and Michael F. Cameron and Peter L. Boveng and Josh M. London and Erin E. Moreland},
  title = {A spatial hierarchical model for abundance of three ice-associated seal species in the eastern Bering Sea },
  journal = {Statistical Methodology },
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572312713000282},
  doi = {10.1016/j.stamet.2013.03.001}
}
Holmes, A. L. & Geupel, G. R. 2005 Effects of Trail Width on the Densities of Four Species of Breeding Birds in Chaparral  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Holmes2005,
  author = {Aaron L. Holmes and Geoffrey R. Geupel},
  title = {Effects of Trail Width on the Densities of Four Species of Breeding Birds in {C}haparral},
  year = {2005},
  number = {Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191}
}
Holt, R. S. & Cologne, J. 1987 Factors affecting line transect estimates of dolphin school density Journal of Wildlife Management 51:836--843      
BibTeX:
@article{HolCol87,
  author = {Holt, R. S. and Cologne, J.},
  title = {Factors affecting line transect estimates of dolphin school density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {836--843}
}
Holt, R. S. & Powers, J. E. 1982 Abundance Estimation of Dolphin Stocks Involved in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Yellowfin Tuna Fishery Determined From Aerial and Ship Surveys to 1979  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{HolPow82,
  author = {Holt, R. S. and Powers, J. E.},
  title = {Abundance Estimation of Dolphin Stocks Involved in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Yellowfin Tuna Fishery Determined From Aerial and Ship Surveys to 1979},
  year = {1982}
}
Hone, J. 1988 A test of the accuracy of line and strip transect estimators in aerial survey Australian Wildlife Research 15:493--497      
BibTeX:
@article{Hon88,
  author = {Hone, J.},
  title = {A test of the accuracy of line and strip transect estimators in aerial survey},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {493--497}
}
Hone, J. 1986 Accuracy of the multiple regression method for estimating density in transect counts Australian Wildlife Research 13:121--126      
BibTeX:
@article{Hon86,
  author = {Hone, J.},
  title = {Accuracy of the multiple regression method for estimating density in transect counts},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {121--126}
}
Hounsome, T. D., Young, R. P., Davison, J., Yarnell, R. W., Trewby, I. D., Garnett, B. T., Delahay, R. J. & Wilson, G. J. 2005 An evaluation of distance sampling to estimate badger (Meles meles) abundance Journal of Zoology 266:81--87      
Abstract: Distance sampling is a common and increasingly used method of estimating animal abundance in conservation and management programmes. The precision of a distance sampling survey can be estimated from the field data, but accuracy can only be evaluated by comparison with the true population size. For wild mammal populations, such opportunities are rare. The high-density badger Meles meles population at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire, U.K. has been routinely and intensively live-trapped for the past 30 years. The estimates of abundance based on mark-recapture analyses of the live-trapping data provided a reliable baseline against which to evaluate distance sampling for a badger population. A distance sampling survey was carried out in autumn 2002 by using spotlighting along line transects. Owing to the impractical nature of spotlighting in closed habitats, such as woodland, surveys were conducted in open habitat only. A radio-tracking study provided behavioural data that were used to estimate the proportion of the population available for sampling in open habitats. This was incorporated as a multiplier into the DISTANCE analysis. The estimate of abundance from distance sampling was 76 badgers (% CV = 42.2), using a multiplier based on radio-tracking data from autumn only. When the multiplier was derived from radio-tracking data from across the whole year, based on a larger sample of tracked badgers, the distance sampling abundance estimate was 77 badgers (% CV = 25.9). These compared favourably to the mark-recapture estimate of 68 badgers (% CV = 7.4). The lack of precision in the distance sampling density estimate was largely owing to the inclusion of the multiplier. Distance sampling combined with data on habitat use can produce reliable estimates of badger abundance in areas of medium to high density, particularly in landscapes of primarily open habitat. © 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
Review: Simple work where the distance sampling estimate is compared with an independent capture-recapture estimate.
The need to include a multiplier for uncovered areas was stressed, and the importance of having a multiplier with low variance is evident, as using only 3 badgers lead to a proportion of variance due to the multiplier being 73%.
BibTeX:
@article{Hounsome2005,
  author = {Hounsome, T. D. and Young, R. P. and Davison, J. and Yarnell, R. W. and Trewby, I. D. and Garnett, B. T. and Delahay, R. J. and Wilson, G. J.},
  title = {An evaluation of distance sampling to estimate badger \textit{(Meles meles) } abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {266},
  number = {1},
  pages = {81--87}
}
Hudgins, R., Norment, C. & Schlesinger, M. 2012 Assessing detectability for monitoring of rare species: a case study of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis Dejean) Journal of Insect Conservation 16:447-455   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Hudgins2012,
  author = {Hudgins, Rhonda and Norment, Christopher and Schlesinger, Matthew},
  title = {Assessing detectability for monitoring of rare species: a case study of the cobblestone tiger beetle (\textit{Cicindela marginipennis} Dejean)},
  journal = {Journal of Insect Conservation},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {447-455},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10841-011-9432-5}
}
Hutto, R. L., Pletschet, S. M. & Hendricks, P. 1986 A fixed radius point count method for nonbreeding and breeding season use The Auk 103:593--602      
BibTeX:
@article{Hutetal86,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Pletschet, S. M. and Hendricks, P.},
  title = {A fixed radius point count method for nonbreeding and breeding season use},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {103},
  pages = {593--602}
}
Hutto, R. L. & Young, J. S. 2003 On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: A reply to Ellingson and Lukacs Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:903--910      
BibTeX:
@article{Hutto2003,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Young, J. S.},
  title = {On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: A reply to {Ellingson and Lukacs}},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {903--910}
}
Hutto, R. L. & Young, J. S. 2002 Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:738--750      
BibTeX:
@article{HutYou02,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Young, J. S.},
  title = {Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the {Northern Rocky Mountains}},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {738--750}
}
Hyrenbach, K., Baduini, C. & Hunt Jr., G. 2001 Line transect estimates of Short-tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris mortality in the south-eastern Bering Sea, 1997-1999 Marine Ornithology 29:11--18     PDF  
Abstract: During 1997, hundreds of thousands of Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris starved to death in the Bering Sea. We surveyed the distribution and abundance of floating carcasses during a cruise between 27 August-12 September, and estimated that over 95 000 carcasses were afloat within three survey grids covering approximately 52 400 km2. We repeatedly surveyed the same areas during two subsequent cruises in 1998 and 1999, and used standard population sampling techniques to evaluate the background levels of shearwater mortality during additional years when a die-off did not occur. The mortality event we observed in 1997 was unusual due to its extent and magnitude. During the die-off, dead shearwaters were sighted within all three survey grids. Conversely, we only encountered carcasses at one of these sites in 1998. Moreover, carcass densities in 1997 were at least one order of magnitude higher than those recorded during the following year. Surveys of seabird mortality at sea can account for floating carcasses before they are lost through advection and scavenging. Therefore, vessel-based surveys are likely to improve the accuracy of seabird mortality estimates based solely on counts of beach-cast carcasses. Here we describe the use of line transects to estimate seabird mortality at sea, and offer suggestions to standardize future surveys. Standardized surveys will improve our ability to compare the frequency, extent, and magnitude of seabird die-offs over time.
BibTeX:
@article{Hyrenbach2001,
  author = {Hyrenbach, K.D. and Baduini, C.L. and Hunt Jr., G.L.},
  title = {Line transect estimates of Short-tailed Shearwater \textit{Puffinus tenuirostris} mortality in the south-eastern Bering Sea, 1997-1999},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {11--18}
}
Hyrenbach, K. D., Henry, M. F., Morgan, K. H., Welch, D. W. & Sydeman, W. J. 2007 Optimizing the width of strip transects for seabird surveys from vessels of opportunity Marine Ornithology 35:29--37     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Hyrenbach2007,
  author = {K. David Hyrenbach and Mike F. Henry and Ken H. Morgan and David W. Welch and William J. Sydeman},
  title = {Optimizing the width of strip transects for seabird surveys from vessels of opportunity},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {29--37}
}
Ickes, K. 2001 Hyper-Abundance of Native Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) in a Lowland Dipterocarp Rain Forest of Peninsular Malaysia Biotropica 33:682--690   DOI    
Abstract: This study reports extraordinarily high density estimates for the wild pig (Sus scrofa) from an aseasonal tropical forest site within the species' native range. At Pasoh Forest Reserve, a 2500 ha area of lowland dipterocarp rain forest in Peninsular Malaysia, line transects were used to estimate pig density from May to October in 1996 and 1998. In 1996, 44 sightings of S. scrofa consisting of 166 individuals were recorded along 81 km of transects. In 1998, 39 sightings documented 129 individuals along 79.9 km of transects. Estimated population density was 47.0 pigs/kmtextasciicircum2 in 1996 and 27.0 pigs/kmtextasciicircum2 in 1998. Sus scrofa biomass in this forest was estimated at 1837 kg/kmtextasciicircum2 and 1346 kg/kmtextasciicircum2 in 1996 and 1998, respectively. Differences between years were attributed to changes in the density of young pigs, coincident with a mast-seeding year of dipterocarp trees in 1996. Pig densities at Pasoh Forest Reserve were much higher than at other forest locations within the species' native range in Europe and Asia. Because Pasoh Forest Reserve is a forest fragment, two factors likely account for the extremely high pig densities: (1) local extinction of natural predators (mainly tigers and leopards) and (2) an abundant year-round food supply of African oil palm fruits from extensive plantations bordering the reserve.
BibTeX:
@article{IckesBiotropica2001,
  author = {Kalan Ickes},
  title = {Hyper-Abundance of Native Wild Pigs \textit{(Sus scrofa)} in a Lowland Dipterocarp Rain Forest of Peninsular Malaysia},
  journal = {Biotropica},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {33},
  number = {4},
  pages = {682--690},
  note = {{ArticleType:} primary\_article / Full publication date: Dec., 2001 / Copyright © 2001 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1646/0006-3606(2001)033[0682:HAONWP]2.0.CO;2}
}
III, F. R. T. & Sorte, F. A. L. 2008 Comparison of Methods for Estimating Bird Abundance and Trends From Historical Count Data Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1674--1682      
BibTeX:
@article{III2008,
  author = {Frank R. Thompson III and Frank A. La Sorte},
  title = {Comparison of Methods for Estimating Bird Abundance and Trends From Historical Count Data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1674--1682}
}
Ingberman, B., Fusco-Costa, R. & de Araujo Monteiro-Filho, E. 2009 Population Survey and Demographic Features of a Coastal Island Population of Alouatta clamitans in Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil International Journal of Primatology 30:1-14   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-008-9324-z,
  author = {Ingberman, Bianca and Fusco-Costa, Roberto and de Araujo Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio},
  title = {Population Survey and Demographic Features of a Coastal Island Population of \textit{Alouatta clamitans} in Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {1-14},
  note = {10.1007/s10764-008-9324-z},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-008-9324-z}
}
Inman, R. D., Nussear, K. E. & Tracy, C. R. 2010 Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density Endangered Species Research 10:294--304   DOI   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Inman2010,
  author = {Richard D. Inman and Kenneth E. Nussear and C. Richard Tracy},
  title = {Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {294--304},
  doi = {10.3354/esr00214}
}
Innes, S., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Laake, J. L., Laidre, K. L., Cleator, H. J., Richard, P. & Stewart, R. E. A. 2002 Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996 NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 4:169--190     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Innetal02,
  author = {Innes, S and Heide-J{\o}rgensen, M. P and Laake, J. L and Laidre, K. L and Cleator, H. J and Richard, P. and Stewart, R. E. A.},
  title = {Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the {C}anadian {H}igh {A}rctic in 1996},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {169--190}
}
Isaac, N. J. B., Cruickshanks, K. L., Weddle, A. M., Marcus Rowcliffe, J., Brereton, T. M., Dennis, R. L. H., Shuker, D. M. & Thomas, C. D. 2011 Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations Methods in Ecology and Evolution :   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{MEE3:MEE3109,
  author = {Isaac, Nick J. B. and Cruickshanks, Katie L. and Weddle, Ann M. and Marcus Rowcliffe, J. and Brereton, Tom M. and Dennis, Roger L. H. and Shuker, David M. and Thomas, Chris D.},
  title = {Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00109.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00109.x}
}
Järvinen, O. 1978 Estimating relative densities of land birds by point counts Annales Zoologici Fennici 15:290--293      
BibTeX:
@article{Jar78,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of land birds by point counts},
  journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {290--293}
}
Järvinen, O. 1978 Species-specific efficiency in line transects Ornis Scandinavica 9:164--167      
BibTeX:
@article{Jar78b,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O.},
  title = {Species-specific efficiency in line transects},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {164--167}
}
Järvinen, O. 1976 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. II. Comparison between two methods Ornis Scandinavica 7:43--48      
BibTeX:
@article{Jar76,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. II. Comparison between two methods},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {43--48}
}
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1983 Confidence limits for estimates of population density in line transects Ornis Scandinavica 14:129--134      
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai83a,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A.},
  title = {Confidence limits for estimates of population density in line transects},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {129--134}
}
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1983 Correction coefficients for line transect censuses of breeding birds Ornis Fennica 60:97--104      
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai83b,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A.},
  title = {Correction coefficients for line transect censuses of breeding birds},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {97--104}
}
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1976 Between-year component of diversity in communities of breeding land birds Oikos 27:34--9      
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A.},
  title = {Between-year component of diversity in communities of breeding land birds},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {34--9}
}
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1976 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. IV. Geographical constancy of the proportion of main belt observations Ornis Fennica 53:87--90      
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76b,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. IV. Geographical constancy of the proportion of main belt observations},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {87--90}
}
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1976 Finnish line transect censuses Ornis Fennica 53:115--118      
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76c,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A.},
  title = {Finnish line transect censuses},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {115--118}
}
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1975 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method Oikos 26:316--322      
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai75,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {316--322}
}
Järvinen, O., Väisänen, R. A. & Haila, Y. 1976 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. III. Temporal constancy of the proportion of main belt observations Ornis Fennica 53:40--45      
BibTeX:
@article{Jaretal76,
  author = {J\"arvinen, O. and V\"ais\"anen, R. A. and Haila, Y.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. III. Temporal constancy of the proportion of main belt observations},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {40--45}
}
Jachmann, H. 2002 Comparison of Aerial Counts with Ground Counts for Large African Herbivores Journal of Applied Ecology 39:841--852      
Abstract: 1. Over the past 50 years, aerial counts have been widely used in African wildlife management; however, the accuracy of the resulting estimates has rarely been questioned. The reliability of aerial counts of large African herbivores was examined by comparing the results of a series of systematic aerial sample counts with those from a series of line transect foot counts conducted in the Lupande Game Management Area in Zambia. 2. For most large herbivore species, the estimates from the aerial counts were considerably lower than those from the ground counts. The data pointed to undercounting as a major problem of aerial surveys. During the aerial counts, significant numbers of animals were missed on the transects, first due to the low probability of spotting single animals, small groups of animals and less conspicuous ones (sighting probability bias), and secondly because part of the population was concealed by obstructions and therefore not visible to the observers (visibility bias). 3. The main factors that influence visibility of large herbivores from the air are the animals' reactions to an over-flying aircraft, dispersion, body size and colour. Animals that move in response to an aircraft are more likely to be seen than static ones; dark-coloured animals are easier to spot than light-coloured ones against a light background; large herds are easier to detect than small ones; and large animals are more easily seen than small ones. Body size is important while trying to spot grazers and mixed feeders from the air, while colour is important for spotting browsers. This is mainly due to the differences in habitat use, with browsers being confined to the thicker habitat. 4. To minimize undercounting bias, both conventional aerial counts and aerial line transect counts should be restricted to large conspicuous grazers and mixed feeders in medium to large group sizes, such as elephant Loxodonta africana africana, buffalo Sincerus caffer, zebra Equus burchell, wildebeest Connochaetes and lechwe Kobus leche. Operational factors, such as height, speed and strip width, should be kept within reasonable limits for conventional aerial counts. Only one species should be counted at a time, always applying the double-count technique. For aerial line transect counts, the use of a helicopter is a prerequisite to obtaining accurate estimates. Other important considerations are observer experience and flight duration.
BibTeX:
@article{JachmannJAE2002,
  author = {H. Jachmann},
  title = {Comparison of Aerial Counts with Ground Counts for Large African Herbivores},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  number = {5},
  pages = {841--852}
}
Jaramillo-Legorreta, A. M., Rojas-Bracho, L. & Gerrodette, T. 1999 A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery Marine Mammal Science 15:957--973     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Jaretal99,
  author = {Jaramillo-Legorreta, A. M. and Rojas-Bracho, L. and Gerrodette, T.},
  title = {A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {957--973}
}
Jarvis, A. M. & Robertson, A. 1999 Predicting population sizes and priority conservation areas for 10 endemic Namibian bird species Biological Conservation 88:121--131      
BibTeX:
@article{JarRob99,
  author = {Jarvis, A. M. and Robertson, A.},
  title = {Predicting population sizes and priority conservation areas for 10 endemic {N}amibian bird species},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {121--131}
}
Jathanna, D., Karanth, K. & Johnsingh, A. 2003 Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling Journal of Zoology 261:285--290     PDF  
Abstract: Ecological densities of large herbivores were estimated using the line transect method in the tropical moist forests of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, southern India, during November 2000. The species of interest were chital Axis axis, sambar Cervus unicolor, muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, gaur Bos gaurus and Hanuman langur Presbytes entellus. Six permanent transects, ranging from 2.6 to 3.6 km (totalling 18.2 km) were each walked 26 times. A total of 473 km was walked during the surveys. Numbers of detections were generally low (51, 25, 68, 17 and 302 for chital, sambar, muntjac, gaur and langur, respectively). Mean estimated densities of different species were [hat D (± SE)]: 4.51 (± 1.05) chital km-2, 0.89 (± 0.23) sambar km -2, 3.64 (± 0.63) muntjac km-2, 1.48 (± 0.63) gaur km-2 and 22.62 (± 2.64) langur km-2. Possible shortcomings of our estimates are considered and suggestions made for improving future surveys. A comparison with densities estimated for these species in other well-protected parks showed that the chital, gaur and sambar densities in Bhadra were extremely low. The main causal factors for these low densities seem to be poaching and livestock grazing.
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna2003,
  author = {Jathanna, D. and Karanth, K.U. and Johnsingh, A.J.T.},
  title = {Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {261},
  number = {3},
  pages = {285--290}
}
Jathanna, D., Kumar, N. S. & Karanth, K. U. 2008 Measuring Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) abundance in southern India using distance sampling Current Science 95:885-888     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna2008,
  author = {Devcharan Jathanna and N. Samba Kumar and K. Ullas Karanth},
  title = {Measuring {Indian giant squirrel (\textit{Ratufa indica}) abundance in southern India} using distance sampling},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {95},
  pages = {885-888}
}
Jefferson, T. A. 2000 Population Biology of the Indo-Pacific Hump-Backed Dolphin in Hong Kong Waters Wildlife Monographs :1--65   URL    
Abstract: The Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin (Sousa chinensis Osbeck, 1765) is found throughout the western Pacific and Indian oceans, from southern China and northern Australia in the east to South Africa in the west. Throughout most of its range it has not been well studied, and in southern China very little is known of its biology. The goal of the present study was to provide scientific information needed for the longterm conservation and management of the population that occurs in Hong Kong waters. From September 1995 to November 1998, 38,105 km of systematic line transect surveys were conducted throughout marine waters of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and adjacent waters to provide data on distribution and abundance. Photo-identification of individual dolphins allowed for examination of movement patterns, home ranges, and social organization. Collection of stranded dolphin carcasses and detailed necropsies provided information on causes of death as well as samples for life history studies, such as feeding habits, growth and reproduction, ecotoxicology, and stock structure. The dolphin population appears to be centered around the Pearl River Estuary, and Hong Kong waters represent the eastern portion of the range, which extends far into mainland Chinese waters (Lingding Bay) and covers at least $1,800 rm km^2$. Within Hong Kong, dolphins only occur in western waters around Lantau Island. The area north of Lantau Island is heavily used throughout the year and represents by far the most important habitat in Hong Kong. Line transect analyses indicate that between 88 (spring) and 145 (summer) dolphins occur in Hong Kong. Based on 27,600 photographs taken, 213 individual dolphins were identified. The total size of the Pearl River breeding population is unknown, but is estimated to consist of at least 1,028 dolphins, based on line transect analysis. An apparent decline in the number of dolphins in the North Lantau area over the period from 1996-1998 was not statistically significant. Individual dolphins have overlapping home ranges of about $30-400 rm km^2$ in different sections of the population's overall range. Groups of dolphins in Hong Kong number up to 23 animals, with an average group size of 3.8 +- s.d. 3.63 animals. There is no significant seasonal variation in group size, but groups feeding behind pair trawl fishing vessels (mean = 9.6 +- s.d. 5.37) are significantly larger than other groups, and groups in Lingding Bay, in Chinese waters west of Hong Kong (mean = 8.3 +- s.d. 7.84) are significantly larger than those in Hong Kong. Groups are very fluid and change composition frequently, with association indices ranging from 0-0.333. Behavioral patterns are similar to those of other coastal dolphins, but Hong Kong hump-backed dolphins only rarely ride bow waves. Following pair trawlers represents an important feeding strategy for some individuals. Construction work on an airport fuel facility in the dolphins' main habitat appears to have caused some disturbance (indicated by increased swimming speeds) and possibly temporary evacuation of the surrounding area. There is a great deal of developmental variation in the color pattern of southern Chinese hump-backed dolphins, with a general lightening from newborn to adult stages. Males appear to retain more spots in adulthood than females. Length at birth appears to be about 100 cm, and postnatal development is characterized by rapid growth in the first year and a levelling-off of the growth curve after reaching adulthood. Asymptotic length is reached at around 243 cm. Length and weight are related exponentially, with the maximum weight about 250 kg. Calving occurs throughout the year, but most young are born from January through August, with a peak in spring/summer. Scant evidence suggests that sexual maturity in females is reached at about 9-10 years of age. Dolphins feed mainly on several demersal and pelagic fish species that are often associated with estuaries. There is a lack of evidence for long-distance movements (on the order of hundreds of linear kilometers), and this presumably results in isolation of groups around major Chinese river mouths. Thus it appears that there may be at least 8 separate populations of hump-backed dolphins along the coast of southern China. The Pearl River Estuary, including Hong Kong, is apparently inhabited by one of these populations, although preliminary genetic work has shown only equivocal evidence of population separation from dolphins in the Xiamen area. Human-related causes of mortality include entanglement in fishing nets and vessel collisions. Some environmental contaminants (especially the heavy metal mercury and the pesticide DDT) were found in high levels in some dolphins, and preliminary evidence suggests that these may be affecting the health of the animals. A series of recommendations for management and for further research have been made to aid in the conservation of these animals. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources should be followed, and information from both the natural and social sciences are needed for proper management. Research and longterm monitoring of the population must continue for management strategies to be evaluated and refined. Overall, the population of hump-backed dolphins that occurs in Hong Kong waters appears to be viable and should be able to survive with appropriate conservation efforts.
BibTeX:
@article{Jefferson2000,
  author = {Jefferson, Thomas A.},
  title = {Population Biology of the Indo-Pacific Hump-Backed Dolphin in Hong Kong Waters},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {2000},
  number = {144},
  pages = {1--65},
  url = {http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0084-0173%28200010%290%3A144%3C1%3APBOTIH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F}
}
Jefferson, T. A. 1996 Estimates of abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1992--1993 Southwest Naturalist 41:279--287      
BibTeX:
@article{Jef96,
  author = {Jefferson, T. A.},
  title = {Estimates of abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of the northwestern {G}ulf of {M}exico, 1992--1993},
  journal = {Southwest Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {279--287}
}
Jenkins, R. K. B., Brady, L. D., Huston, K., Kauffmann, J. L. D., Rabearivony, J., Raveloson, G. & Rowcliffe, J. M. 1999 The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and recommendations for future monitoring ORYX 33:38--46      
Abstract: Malagasy chameleons are threatened by the relentless pace of habitat destruction. Their great popularity amongst herpetoculturalists has also resulted in collection for international animal markets. Most previous fieldwork has focused on the compilation of much needed species inventories, but little attention has been given to estimating chameleon population densities. This lack of information prevents a reliable assessment of the effects of habitat loss and direct exploitation on wild populations. A simple and repeatable methodology for the monitoring of chameleon populations is therefore urgently required. The present study developed survey techniques based on distance sampling within an area of relatively undisturbed rain forest at Ranomafana National Park. In total 394 individuals from six species were recorded and population densities (±SE) of 27.2 ± 5.4/ha Brookesia spp. and 21.4±4.0/ha Calumma spp. were estimated using the computer program DISTANCE. The authors propose that monitoring of chameleons in areas subject to different threats should begin immediately using the methods outlined in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Jenkins1999,
  author = {Jenkins, R. K. B. and Brady, L. D. and Huston, K. and Kauffmann, J. L. D. and Rabearivony, J. and Raveloson, G. and Rowcliffe, J. M.},
  title = {The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and recommendations for future monitoring},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--46}
}
Jensen, A. & Meilby, H. 2012 Assessing the Population Status of a Tree Species Using Distance Sampling: Aquilaria crassna (Thymelaeaceae) in Northern Laos International Journal of Forestry Research 2012:   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Jensen2012,
  author = {Anders Jensen and Henrik Meilby},
  title = {Assessing the Population Status of a Tree Species Using Distance Sampling: \textit{Aquilaria crassna} (Thymelaeaceae) in Northern Laos},
  journal = {International Journal of Forestry Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {2012},
  doi = {10.1155/2012/265831}
}
Jensen, A. L. 1996 Subsampling with line transects for estimation of animal abundance Environmetrics 7:283--289      
BibTeX:
@article{Jen96,
  author = {Jensen, A. L.},
  title = {Subsampling with line transects for estimation of animal abundance},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {283--289}
}
Jepson, P., Brickle, N. & Chayadin, Y. 2001 The conservation status of Tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: Results of a rapid contextual survey ORYX 35:224--233     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Jepson2001,
  author = {Jepson, P. and Brickle, N. and Chayadin, Y.},
  title = {The conservation status of Tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: Results of a rapid contextual survey},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {35},
  number = {3},
  pages = {224--233}
}
Jessop, T. S., Forsyth, D. M., Purwandana, D., Imansyah, J., Opat, D. S. & McDonald-Madden, E. 0000 Monitoring the ungulate prey of komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis using faecal counts  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Jessop,
  author = {Jessop, T. S. and Forsyth, D. M. and Purwandana, D. and Imansyah, J. and Opat, D. S. and McDonald-Madden, E.},
  title = {Monitoring the ungulate prey of komodo dragons \textit{Varanus komodoensis} using faecal counts},
  year = {0000}
}
Jett, D. A. & Nichols, J. D. 1987 A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators Journal of Mammalogy 68:888--892      
BibTeX:
@article{JetNic87,
  author = {Jett, D. A. and Nichols, J. D.},
  title = {A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {888--892}
}
Jewell, R., Thomas, L., Harris, C., Kaschner, K., Wiff, R., Hammond, P. & Quick., N. 2012 Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: detecting trends in cetacean density Marine Ecology Progress Series. 453:227--240     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Jewell2012,
  author = {Jewell, R. and L. Thomas and C.M. Harris and K. Kaschner and R. Wiff and P.S. Hammond and N.J. Quick.},
  title = {Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: detecting trends in cetacean density},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {453},
  pages = {227--240}
}
Jimenez, I., Londono, G. A. & Cadena, C. D. 2003 Efficiency, bias, and consistency of visual and aural surveys of curassows (Cracidae) in tropical forests Journal of Field Ornithology 74:210--216     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{JIM03,
  author = {Jimenez, I. and Londono, G. A. and Cadena, C. D.},
  title = {Efficiency, bias, and consistency of visual and aural surveys of curassows ({C}racidae) in tropical forests},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {210--216}
}
Jocqué, R., Samu, F. & Bird, T. 2005 Density of spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests Journal of Zoology 266:105--110      
Abstract: To monitor the biodiversity quality of rainforest fragments in the eastern region of the Ivory Coast, the density of at least one important invertebrate group needs to be determined. This has been possible for nocturnal hunting spiders from the family Ctenidae using a novel combination of sampling and census techniques. The reflective characteristics of the eyes of these spiders meant that individuals were readily located using headlamps. Collections were made along transects (total length 5.5 km), adopting a distance sampling protocol. Density was estimated using distance sampling models. More than 2600 ctenids (15 species) were captured and identified. Seven of these species were present in sufficient numbers for density assessment. The combined density of these seven most common species in degraded forest fragments (0.124 m -2) was only half that in less disturbed forest (0.240 m -2). Ctenidae are a promising candidate for future monitoring of invertebrate groups in the rainforest. © 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
Review: Uses 1 sided transects, and it's not clear that they accounted for it
Obtains density estimates wich are not proportional to number of observations, even though the detection function is said to be the same ????
Does not collect distances to uncaptured animals (which was stupid really... around only 80% g(0))
BibTeX:
@article{Jocque2005,
  author = {Jocqu{\'e}, R. and Samu, F. and Bird, T.},
  title = {Density of spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {266},
  pages = {105--110}
}
Johnsingh, A. J. T. & Joshua, J. 1994 Avifauna in 3 vegetation types on Mundanthurai Plateau, south India Journal of Tropical Ecology 10:323--335      
BibTeX:
@article{JohJos94,
  author = {Johnsingh, A. J. T. and Joshua, J.},
  title = {Avifauna in 3 vegetation types on {M}undanthurai {P}lateau, south {I}ndia},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {323--335}
}
Johnson, A., Knott, C., Pamungkas, B., Pasaribu, M. & Marshall, A. 2005 A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts Biological Conservation 121:495--507      
Review: Interesting remark about the need for accurate measuring, citing an author that says that overestimation of distances might have been the reason for underestimation of density. Singleton 2000. Ranging Behaviour and Seasonal Movements of Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in Swamp Forests, Ph.D. Dissertation. The University of Kent at Canterbury,
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2005,
  author = {Johnson, A.E. and Knott, C.D. and Pamungkas, B. and Pasaribu, M. and Marshall, A.J.},
  title = {A survey of the orangutan (\textit{Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii}) population in and around {Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia} based on nest counts},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {121},
  number = {4},
  pages = {495--507}
}
Johnson, B. K., Lindzey, F. G. & Guenzel, R. J. 1991 Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in Wyoming Wildlife Society Bulletin 19:315--321      
BibTeX:
@article{Johetal91,
  author = {Johnson, B. K. and Lindzey, F. G. and Guenzel, R. J.},
  title = {Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in {W}yoming},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {315--321}
}
Johnson, D., Laake, J. & VerHoef, J. 2009 Package DSpat  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Johnson2009a,
  author = {Devin Johnson and Jeff Laake and Jay VerHoef},
  title = {Package DSpat},
  year = {2009}
}
Johnson, D. H. 2008 In Defense of Indices: The Case of Bird Surveys Journal of Wildlife Management 72:857--868   URL    
Abstract: Indices to population size have come under increasing criticism in recent years, on the grounds that indices might not faithfully represent the entire population. Most criticisms involve surveys of birds, particularly those based on point counts, which is my focus here. A variety of quantitative methods have been developed to reduce the bias of point counts, such as distance sampling, multiple-observer surveys, and time-of-detection methods. I argue that these developments are valuable, in that they enhance understanding of the detection process, but that their practical application may well be limited, likely to intensive studies focusing on a small number of species. These quantitative methods are not generally applicable to extensive, multiple-species surveys. Although criticism of the thoughtless use of indices is welcome, their wholesale rejection is not.
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2008,
  author = {Johnson, Douglas H.},
  title = {In Defense of Indices: The Case of Bird Surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  number = {4},
  pages = {857--868
},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2193%2F2007-294}
}
Johnson, D. S., Laake, J. L. & Hoef, J. M. V. 2010 A Model-Based Approach for Making Ecological Inference from Distance Sampling Data Biometrics 66:310--318   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2010a,
  author = {Devin S. Johnson and Jeffrey L. Laake and Jay M. Ver Hoef},
  title = {A Model-Based Approach for Making Ecological Inference from Distance Sampling Data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {310--318},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01265.x}
}
Johnson, E. G. & Routledge, R. D. 1985 The line transect method: a nonparametric estimator based on shape restrictions Biometrics 41:669--679      
BibTeX:
@article{JohRou85,
  author = {Johnson, E. G. and Routledge, R. D.},
  title = {The line transect method: a nonparametric estimator based on shape restrictions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {669--679}
}
Johnson, F. A., Pollock, K. H. & Montalbano, F., I. 1989 Visibility bias in aerial surveys of mottled ducks Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:222--227      
BibTeX:
@article{Johetal89,
  author = {Johnson, F. A. and Pollock, K. H. and Montalbano, F., III.},
  title = {Visibility bias in aerial surveys of mottled ducks},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {222--227}
}
Jones, J., McLeish, W. J. & Robertson, R. J. 2000 Density influences census technique accuracy for Cerulean Warblers in eastern Ontario Journal of Field Ornithology 71:46-56      
BibTeX:
@article{Jonetal00,
  author = {Jones, J. and McLeish, W. J. and Robertson, R. J.},
  title = {Density influences census technique accuracy for {C}erulean {W}arblers in eastern {O}ntario},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {46-56}
}
Jones, M. J., Sullivan, M. S., Marsden, S. J. & Linsley, M. D. 2001 Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73:65--79      
BibTeX:
@article{Jones2001,
  author = {Jones, M. J. and Sullivan, M. S. and Marsden, S. J and Linsley, M. D.},
  title = {Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands},
  journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {65--79}
}
Kaiser, L. 1983 Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling Biometrics 39:965--976      
BibTeX:
@article{Kai83,
  author = {Kaiser, L.},
  title = {Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {965--976}
}
Karanth, K. U. & Nichols, J. D. 2002 Monitoring tigers and their prey - a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical Asia  :      
BibTeX:
@book{Karanth2002,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Nichols, J. D.},
  title = {Monitoring tigers and their prey - a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical Asia},
  publisher = {Centre for Wildlife Studies},
  year = {2002}
}
Karanth, K. U. & Sunquist, M. E. 1995 Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests Journal of Animal Ecology 64:439--450      
BibTeX:
@article{KarSun95,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Sunquist, M. E.},
  title = {Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests},
  journal = {Journal of Animal Ecology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {439--450}
}
Karanth, K. U. & Sunquist, M. E. 1992 Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India Journal of Tropical Ecology 8:21--35      
BibTeX:
@article{KarSun92,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Sunquist, M. E.},
  title = {Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of {N}agarahole, {I}ndia},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {21--35}
}
Karunamuni, R. J. & Quinn, T. J. 1995 Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for the line transects sampling Biometrics 51:1325--37      
BibTeX:
@article{KarQui95,
  author = {Karunamuni, R. J. and Quinn, T. J.},
  title = {Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for the line transects sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {1325--37}
}
Kasamatsu, F. & Joyce, G. G. 1995 Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic Antarctic Science 7:365--379     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{KasJoy95,
  author = {Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G. G.},
  title = {Current status of odontocetes in the {A}ntarctic},
  journal = {Antarctic Science},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {365--379}
}
Kaschner, K., Quick, N. J., Jewell, R., Williams, R. & Harris, C. M. 2012 Global Coverage of Cetacean Line-Transect Surveys: Status Quo, Data Gaps and Future Challenges PLoS ONE 7:e44075   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Kaschner2012,
  author = {Kaschner, , Kristin AND Quick, , Nicola J. AND Jewell, , Rebecca AND Williams, , Rob AND Harris, , Catriona M.},
  title = {Global Coverage of Cetacean Line-Transect Surveys: Status Quo, Data Gaps and Future Challenges},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {e44075},
  doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0044075}
}
Kastdalen, L., Pedersen, H. C. & Fjone, G.and Andreassen, H. P. Combining resource selection functions and distance sampling: an example with willow ptarmigan Proceedings of the First International Conference on Resource Selection :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kastdalen,
  author = {Kastdalen, L. and Pedersen, H. C. and Fjone, G.and Andreassen, H. P.},
  title = {Combining resource selection functions and distance sampling: an example with willow ptarmigan},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Resource Selection}
}
Katsanevakis, S. 2007 Density surface modelling with line transect sampling as a tool for abundance estimation of marine benthic species: the Pinna nobilis example in a marine lake Marine Biology 152:77-85     PDF  
Abstract: Density estimation of marine benthic fauna is most often conducted with fishery surveys using dredges or trawls. These estimates are often unreliable due to low and variable efficiency and are inappropriate when dealing with rare or endangered species. In the marine Lake Vouliagmeni, a density surface modelling (DSM) approach using survey data from line transects, integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS), was used to estimate the population density of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis. This is the first time that such an approach has been applied for a marine benthic species. DSM was beneficial in relation to traditional distance sampling. Apart from providing a more precise total abundance estimate, it related the density of the species to spatial covariates of interest, gave a depiction of the species dispersion in the study area, and provided abundance estimates in any subregion of the study area. In Lake Vouliagmeni, a marked zonation of P. nobilis distribution was revealed, with the species being restricted in the shallow peripheral zone at depths <22 m. Two density peaks were observed, a major peak at depths between 12 and 13 m and a secondary peak at ~4 m. A main hotspot of high density was also observed in the northeastern part of the lake. Total abundance of the species was estimated to be 6,770 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 5,460–8,393 individuals.
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2007,
  author = {Stelios Katsanevakis},
  title = {Density surface modelling with line transect sampling as a tool for abundance estimation of marine benthic species: the \textit{Pinna nobilis} example in a marine lake},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {152},
  pages = {77-85}
}
Katsanevakis, S. 2005 Abundance and spatial distribution of the Mediterranean scallop, Pecten jacobaeus, in a marine lake Fisheries Research 76:417--429   URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Kat05,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios},
  title = {Abundance and spatial distribution of the Mediterranean scallop, Pecten jacobaeus, in a marine lake},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {76},
  number = {3},
  pages = {417--429},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T6N-4H27BV8-1/2/f8adb1702140292fabc9845ebc3e87fa}
}
Katsanevakis, S. 2005 Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake Endangered Species Research 1:1-9     PDF  
Abstract: A substantial population of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis exists
in the marine Lake Vouliagmeni (Korinthiakos Gulf, Greece). The population density of P. nobilis was
estimated in the lake with line transect sampling. Individuals of the youngest age class (small) had
peak densities in the 1 to 3 m bathymetric zone and their densities were higher in poorly sorted
sediments. Older (large) individuals (belonging to all age classes except the first one, 9 to 11 mo) had
peak densities in the 11 to 13 m bathymetric zone. No P. nobilis was found deeper than 22 m. The
absence of large individuals in shallow waters may partly be explained by illegal fishing. There are
several hypotheses proposed to explain the lack of small individuals in deeper areas, but no definitive
explanation is offered. In Lake Vouliagmeni, P. nobilis densities were high, although marine seagrass
was completely absent. Thus, P. nobilis does not actually require seagrass meadows, as stated
by many authors, and it may exist in large numbers in bare soft-sediment areas as well. P. nobilis
grew fast, mostly during the first 3 yr of life, and may live beyond 15 yr. By recording the exact
location of each P. nobilis individual within 800 m2 transects, as a pair of coordinates, the exact spatial
distribution was defined and aggregation indices were calculated. P. nobilis had an aggregated
dispersion, but no evidence for preferential settlement near adults or previously-settled individuals
was found. The aggregated dispersion of P. nobilis probably relates to the patchiness of the local
environment. The size of P. nobilis population in Lake Vouliagmeni was estimated to be 8501 ± 4395
(mean ± 1 SD) individuals, of which 4355 ± 3460 belonged to the first age class and 4146 ± 1405
belonged to all other age classes.
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2005,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S},
  title = {Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {1-9}
}
Katsanevakis, S. & Thessalou-Legaki, M. 2009 Spatial distribution, abundance and habitat use of the protected fan mussel Pinna nobilis in Souda Bay, Crete Aquatic Biology 8:45–54     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2009,
  author = {Stelios Katsanevakis and Maria Thessalou-Legaki},
  title = {Spatial distribution, abundance and habitat use of the protected fan mussel \textit{Pinna nobilis} in {Souda Bay, Crete}},
  journal = {Aquatic Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {45–54}
}
Katsanevakis, S. & Thessalou-Legaki, M. 2007 First record of Alicia mirabilis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Aegean Sea and density assessment with distance sampling in a site of high abundance Marine Biology Research 3:468--472      
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2007a,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S and Thessalou-Legaki, M},
  title = {First {record of \textit{Alicia mirabilis} (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Aegean Sea and density assessment with distance sampling in a site of high abundance}},
  journal = {Marine Biology Research},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {468--472}
}
Katsanevakis, S., Weber, A., Pipitone, C., Leopold, M., Cronin, M., Scheidat, M., Doyle, T. K., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Buhl-Mortensen, P., D’Anna, G., de Boois, I., Dalpadado, P., Damalas, D., Fiorentino, F., Garofalo, G., Giacalone, V. M., Hawley, K. L., Issaris, Y., Jansen, J., Knight, C. M., Knittweis, L., Kröncke, I., Mirto, S., Muxika, I., Reiss, H., Skjoldal, H. R. & Vöge, S. 2012 Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability Aquatic Biology 16:31-52      
BibTeX:
@article{KatsanevakisS2012,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S and Weber, A and Pipitone, C and Leopold, M and M. Cronin and M. Scheidat and T. K. Doyle and L. Buhl-Mortensen and P. Buhl-Mortensen and G. D’Anna and I. de Boois and P. Dalpadado and D. Damalas and F. Fiorentino and G. Garofalo and V. M. Giacalone and K. L. Hawley and Y. Issaris and J. Jansen and C. M. Knight and L. Knittweis and I. Kröncke and S. Mirto and I. Muxika and H. Reiss and H. R. Skjoldal and S. Vöge},
  title = {Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability},
  journal = {Aquatic Biology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {31-52}
}
Keŕy, M., Royle, J. & Schmid, H. 2005 Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models Ecological Applications 15:1450--1461      
Abstract: Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture-recapture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here, we evaluate mixture models using data from the national breeding bird monitoring program in Switzerland, where some 250 1-km2 quadrats are surveyed using the territory mapping method three times during each breeding season. We chose eight species with contrasting distribution (wide-narrow), abundance (high-low), and detectability (easy-difficult). Abundance was modeled as a random effect with a Poisson or negative binomial distribution, with mean affected by forest cover, elevation, and route length. Detectability was a logit-linear function of survey date, survey date-by-elevation, and sampling effort (time per transect unit). Resulting covariate effects and parameter estimates were consistent with expectations. Detectability per territory (for three surveys) ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 (mean 0.84) for easy species, and from 0.16 to 0.83 (mean 0.53) for difficult species, depended on survey effort for two easy and all four difficult species, and changed seasonally for three easy and three difficult species. Abundance was positively related to route length in three high-abundance and one low-abundance (one easy and three difficult) species, and increased with forest cover in five forest species, decreased for two nonforest species, and was unaffected for a generalist species. Abundance estimates under the most parsimonious mixture models were between 1.1 and 8.9 (median 1.8) times greater than estimates based on territory mapping; hence, three surveys were insufficient to detect all territories for each species. We conclude that binomial mixture models are an important new approach for estimating abundance corrected for detectability when only repeated-count data are available. Future developments envisioned include estimation of trend, occupancy, and total regional abundance. © 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.
BibTeX:
@article{Kery2005,
  author = {Ke{\'r}y, M. and Royle, J.A. and Schmid, H.},
  title = {Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {15},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1450--1461}
}
Kelker, G. H. 1945 Measurement and interpretation of forces that determine populations of managed deer  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kel45,
  author = {Kelker, G. H.},
  title = {Measurement and interpretation of forces that determine populations of managed deer},
  school = {University of Michigan},
  year = {1945}
}
Kelley, J. R. 1996 Line transect sampling for estimating breeding wood duck density in forested wetlands Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:32--36      
BibTeX:
@article{Kel96,
  author = {Kelley, J. R.},
  title = {Line transect sampling for estimating breeding wood duck density in forested wetlands},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {32--36}
}
Kenneth, B. 2001 Temporal variation in fall bird density at high elevation habitats in southern British Columbia: an analisys using distance sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kenneth2001,
  author = {Kenneth, B.H.},
  title = {Temporal variation in fall bird density at high elevation habitats in southern British Columbia: an analisys using distance sampling},
  year = {2001}
}
Khan, J. A. 1995 Conservation and management of Gir Lion Sanctuary and National Park, Gujarat, India Biological Conservation 73:183--188      
BibTeX:
@article{Kha95,
  author = {Khan, J. A.},
  title = {Conservation and management of {G}ir {L}ion {S}anctuary and {N}ational {P}ark, {G}ujarat, {I}ndia},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {183--188}
}
Kidney, D. 2009 Line transect sampling using triangulation: investigating the effect of bearing error on density estimation  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Kidney2009,
  author = {Darren Kidney},
  title = {Line transect sampling using triangulation: investigating the effect of bearing error on density estimation},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2009}
}
Kie, J. G. & Boroski, B. B. 1995 Using spotlight counts to estimate mule deer population size and trends California Fish and Game 81:55--70      
BibTeX:
@article{KieBor95,
  author = {Kie, J. G. and Boroski, B. B.},
  title = {Using spotlight counts to estimate mule deer population size and trends},
  journal = {California Fish and Game},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {55--70}
}
Kiffner, C., Meyer, B., Muhlenberg, M. & Waltert, M. 2009 Plenty of prey, few predators: what limits lions Panthera leo in Katavi National Park, western Tanzania? Oryx 43:52--59     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Kiffner2009,
  author = {Christian Kiffner and Britta Meyer and Michael Muhlenberg and Matthias Waltert},
  title = {Plenty of prey, few predators: what limits {lions \textit{Panthera leo} in Katavi National Park, western Tanzania}?},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {52--59}
}
Kingsley, M. C. S. & Reeves, R. R. 1998 Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996 Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1529--1550     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{KinRee98,
  author = {Kingsley, M. C. S. and Reeves, R. R.},
  title = {Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the {G}ulf of {S}t. {L}awrence in 1995 and 1996},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {1529--1550}
}
Kint, V., Robert, D. & Noël, L. 2004 Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands Ecological Modelling 180:461--476      
Abstract: The paper is about the accurate (i.e. unbiased and precise) and efficient estimation of structural indices in forest stands. We present SIAFOR, a computer programme for the calculation of four nearest-neighbour indices, which describe the spatial arrangement of tree positions, the distribution pattern of species, and the size differentiation between trees. The study uses SIAFOR as a sampling simulator in eight completely stem-mapped forest stands of varying area and structural complexity. We statistically evaluate two sample types (distance and plot sampling), comparing sampling error, bias and minimum sample size for index estimation. We introduce the concepts of measurement expansion factor (MEF) and design expansion factor (DEF) for the technical evaluation of sample type efficiency (optimal sample type). Results indicate that sampling error can reach high levels and that minimum sample sizes for index estimation often amply exceed the limit of 20% of tree density or 20 trees per species per hectare, that we set as the highest feasible sample size in normal situations. We found clear feasibility limits (in terms of minimal tree densities and reachable accuracy levels) for the estimation of all investigated indices. Generally, equal or higher sample sizes are needed for plot sampling than for distance sampling to reach equal accuracy levels. Nevertheless, plot sampling resulted more efficient for the estimation of tree size differentiation at low to medium accuracy levels. For all other investigated indices distance sampling resulted more efficient than plot sampling. Minimum sample size increases with accuracy and is negatively correlated with tree density. At a given accuracy level minimum sample size is highest for the estimation of relative mingling and lowest for tree size differentiation; furthermore it is generally lower in large stands than in small ones. Because of the consistency of our conclusions in all of the investigated stands, we think they apply in most stands of similar area (between 1 and 10 ha) and species diversity (not more than four species). © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Kint2004,
  author = {Kint, V. and Robert, D.W. and No{\"e}l, L.},
  title = {Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {180},
  number = {4},
  pages = {461--476}
}
Kinzey, D. & Gerrodette, T. 2003 Distance measurements using binoculars from ships at sea: accuracy, precision and effects of refraction Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:159--171     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Kinzey2003,
  author = {Douglas Kinzey and Tim Gerrodette},
  title = {Distance measurements using binoculars from ships at sea: accuracy, precision and effects of refraction},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {159--171}
}
Kinzey, D., Gerrodette, T. & Fink, D. 2002 Accuracy and precision of perpendicular distance measurements in shipboard line-transect sighting surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kinetal2002,
  author = {Douglas Kinzey and Tim Gerrodette and Daniel Fink},
  title = {Accuracy and precision of perpendicular distance measurements in shipboard line-transect sighting surveys},
  year = {2002},
  number = { LJ-02-09}
}
Kinzey, D., Olson, P. & Gerrodette, T. Marine Mammal Data Collection Procedures on Research Ship Line-Transect Surveys  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kinzey,
  author = {Douglas Kinzey and Paula Olson and Tim Gerrodette},
  title = {Marine Mammal Data Collection Procedures on Research Ship Line-Transect Surveys}
}
Kishino, H., Kasamatsu, F. & Toda, T. 1988 On the double line transect method Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:273--279      
BibTeX:
@article{Kisetal88,
  author = {Kishino, H. and Kasamatsu, F. and Toda, T.},
  title = {On the double line transect method},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {273--279}
}
Kishino, H., Kato, H., Kasamatsu, F. & Fujise, Y. 1991 Detection of heterogeneity and estimation of population characteristics from the field survey data: 1987/88 Japanese feasibility study of the Southern Hemisphere minke whales Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 43:435--453      
BibTeX:
@article{Kisetal91,
  author = {Kishino, H. and Kato, H. and Kasamatsu, F. and Fujise, Y.},
  title = {Detection of heterogeneity and estimation of population characteristics from the field survey data: 1987/88 {J}apanese feasibility study of the {S}outhern {H}emisphere minke whales},
  journal = {Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {435--453}
}
Kissa, D. & Sheil, D. 2012 Visual detection based distance sampling offers efficient density estimation for distinctive low abundance tropical forest tree species in complex terrain Forest Ecology and Management 263:114--121      
BibTeX:
@article{Kissa2012,
  author = {D.O. Kissa and D. Sheil},
  title = {Visual detection based distance sampling offers efficient density estimation for distinctive low abundance tropical forest tree species in complex terrain},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {263},
  pages = {114--121}
}
Kissling, M. & Garton, E. 2006 Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: A combination of distance and double-observer sampling Auk 123:735--752     PDF  
Abstract: Point counts are the method most commonly used to estimate abundance of birds, but they often fail to account properly for incomplete and variable detection probabilities. We developed a technique that combines distance and double-observer sampling to estimate detection probabilities and effective area surveyed. We applied this paired-observer, variable circular-plot (POVCP) technique to point-count surveys (n = 753) conducted in closed-canopy forests of southeast Alaska. Distance data were analyzed for each species to model a detection probability for each observer and calculate an estimate of density. We then multiplied each observer's density estimates by a correction factor to adjust for detection probabilities <1 at plot center. We compared analytical results from four survey methods: single-observer fixed-radius (50-m) plot; single-observer, variable circular-plot (SOVCP); double-observer fixed-radius (50-m) plot; and POVCP. We examined differences in detection probabilities at plot center, effective area surveyed, and densities for five bird species: Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis), Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes), Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), and Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi). Average detection probabilities for paired observers increased ?8% (SE = 2.9) for all species once estimates were corrected for birds missed at plot center. Density estimators of fixed-radius survey methods were likely negatively biased, because the key assumption of perfect detection was not met. Density estimates generated using SOVCP and POVCP were similar, but standard errors were much lower for the POVCP survey method. We recommend using POVCP when study objectives require precise estimates of density. Failure to account for differences in detection probabilities and effective area surveyed results in biased population estimators and, therefore, faulty inferences about the population in question. © The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Kissling2006,
  author = {Kissling, M.L. and Garton, E.O.},
  title = {Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: A combination of distance and double-observer sampling},
  journal = {Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  number = {3},
  pages = {735--752}
}
Kissling, M. L., Reid, M., Lukacs, P. M., Gende, S. M. & Lewis, S. B. 2007 Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring Ecological Applications 17:2164--2174      
BibTeX:
@article{Kissling2007,
  author = {Michelle L. Kissling and Mason Reid and Paul M. Lukacs and Scott M. Gende and Stephen B. Lewis},
  title = {Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {2164--2174}
}
Kitahara, M. & Fujii, K. 1994 Biodiversity and community structure of temperate butterfly species within a gradient of human disturbance --- an analysis based on the concept of generalist vs specialist strategies Researches on Population Ecology 36:187--199      
BibTeX:
@article{KitFuj94,
  author = {Kitahara, M. and Fujii, K.},
  title = {Biodiversity and community structure of temperate butterfly species within a gradient of human disturbance --- an analysis based on the concept of generalist vs specialist strategies},
  journal = {Researches on Population Ecology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {187--199}
}
Klavitter, J. L. 2000 Survey methodology, abundance and demography of the endangered Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Kla00,
  author = {Klavitter, J. L.},
  title = {Survey methodology, abundance and demography of the endangered Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?},
  school = {University of Washington},
  year = {2000}
}
Klavitter, J. L., Marzluff, J. M. & Vekasy, M. S. 2003 Abundance and demography of the Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted? Journal of Wildlife Management 67:165--176      
BibTeX:
@article{Klaetal03,
  author = {Klavitter, J. L and Marzluff, J. M. and Vekasy, M. S.},
  title = {Abundance and demography of the Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {67},
  pages = {165--176}
}
Knopf, F. L. 1986 Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna Wildlife Society Bulletin 14:132--142      
BibTeX:
@article{Kno86,
  author = {Knopf, F. L.},
  title = {Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern {C}olorado avifauna},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {132--142}
}
Knopf, F. L., Sedgwick, J. A. & Cannon, R. W. 1988 Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing Journal of Wildlife Management 52:280--290      
BibTeX:
@article{Knoetal88,
  author = {Knopf, F. L. and Sedgwick, J. A. and Cannon, R. W.},
  title = {Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {280--290}
}
Koenen, K., DeStefano, S. & Krausman, P. 2002 Using distance sampling to estimate seasonal densities of desert mule deer in a semidesert grassland Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:53--63      
Abstract: Wildlife managers need to be able to assess density, distribution, and status of wildlife populations with reliable techniques. We used distance sampling from 971 point transects to estimate density and examine herd composition of desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Arizona during 4 seasons in 1996. We first conducted a pilot study to refine survey design and train observers. We also evaluated our ability to meet 4 major assumptions of distance sampling (random placement of points, objects on points always detected, objects detected at initial location, distances measured accurately). Densities varied from 0.9 (SE=0.3) deer/km2 in summer to 2.5 (1.3) in winter. Herd size varied from 1.5 (0.1) deer/group in summer to 9.7 (2.0) in winter. Density of females was greater than males (0.9 [0.3] and 0.03 [0.04], respectively) for all seasons combined. We found that placement of points, detecting deer at points, and not forcing deer to move from their initial location were interrelated and a function of mule deer behavior and how we approached points. Our ability to measure distances accurately was improved greatly by using distance test courses and calibration points throughout the refuge. Important considerations in using distance sampling include: 1) careful evaluation of study design; 2) establishment of permanent survey points to be used throughout time, which aids in field operations and analysis; 3) development and use of a distance test course and calibration points to train observers, practice measuring distances, and calibrate equipment; 4) development of standardized protocol to maintain consistent data collection among observers and over time; and 5) incorporation of a thorough understanding of the target species' behavior and ecology into the survey design.
BibTeX:
@article{Koenen2002,
  author = {Koenen, K.K.G. and DeStefano, S. and Krausman, P.R.},
  title = {Using distance sampling to estimate seasonal densities of desert mule deer in a semidesert grassland},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53--63}
}
Koopman, B. O. 1956 The theory of search II. Target detection Operations Research 4:503--531      
BibTeX:
@article{Koo56,
  author = {Koopman, B. O.},
  title = {The theory of search {II}. {T}arget detection},
  journal = {Operations Research},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {503--531}
}
Koster, S. H. 1985 An evaluation of line transect census methods in West African wooded savanna  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kos85,
  author = {Koster, S. H.},
  title = {An evaluation of line transect census methods in {W}est {A}frican wooded savanna},
  school = {Michigan State University},
  year = {1985}
}
Kouakou, L. Y., Boesch, C. & Kuehl, H. 2009 Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Tai national park American Journal of Primatology 71:447--457      
BibTeX:
@article{Kouakou2009,
  author = {Lestin Yao Kouakou and Christophe Boesch and Hjalmar Kuehl},
  title = {Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Tai national park},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {447--457}
}
Kovner, J. L. & Patil, S. A. 1974 Properties of estimators of wildlife population density for the line transect method Biometrics 30:225--230      
Abstract: The variance of several estimators of the population density based on the line transect method of distance sampling are studied under exponential sighting probability. The estimator suggested by Gates [1969] is shown to be minimum variance unbiased estimator. Efficiency of other estimators is obtained with respect to this estimator.
BibTeX:
@article{Kovner1974,
  author = {Kovner, J. L. and Patil, S. A.},
  title = {Properties of estimators of wildlife population density for the line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {225--230}
}
Kraus, J. 1997 Counting furtive beasts by computer Communications of the ACM 40:20--23      
Abstract: Counting Furtive Beasts by Computer. Where have all the rhinos gone?
BibTeX:
@article{Kraus1997,
  author = {Kraus, J.},
  title = {Counting furtive beasts by computer},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40},
  number = {6},
  pages = {20--23}
}
Kruger, J. M., Reilly, B. K. & Whyte, I. J. 2008 Application of distance sampling to estimate population densities of large herbivores in Kruger National Park Wildlife research 35:371--376      
BibTeX:
@article{Kruger2008,
  author = {Kruger, J. M. and Reilly, B. K. and Whyte, I. J.},
  title = {Application of distance sampling to estimate population densities of large herbivores in Kruger National Park},
  journal = {Wildlife research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {371--376}
}
Krzysik, J. A., Woodman, A. P. & Hagan, M. 1995 A field evaluation of four methods for estimating desert tortoise densities Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council 1995:92      
BibTeX:
@article{Krzetal95,
  author = {Krzysik, J. A and Woodman, A. P. and Hagan, M.},
  title = {A field evaluation of four methods for estimating desert tortoise densities},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {1995},
  pages = {92}
}
Kühl, H., Maisels, F., Ancrenaz, M. & Williamson, E. A. 2008 Best Practice Guidelines for Surveys and Monitoring of Great Ape Populations  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kuehl2008,
  author = {Kühl, H. and Maisels, F. and Ancrenaz, M. and Williamson, E. A.},
  title = {Best Practice Guidelines for Surveys and Monitoring of Great Ape Populations},
  year = {2008}
}
Kuitunen, M., Rossi, E. & Stenroos, A. 1998 Do highways influence density of land birds? Environmental Management 22:297--302     PDF  
Review: Neste trabalho é estudada a influência de uma estrada na densidade de pássaros. São considerados 2 transectos paralelos à estrada, um a 25 m e outro a 200 metros. É utilizada a metodologia das bandas, de Jarvien & Vaisanen.
Uma coisa bastante estupida é que em cada dia o primeiro transecto é sempre realizado primeiro, supostamente para reduzir a influênciaa do tráfico. Mas se houver qualquer relação entre actividade e hora do dia este é um exemplo de confundimento total de factores.
Aparentemente algumas aves são influenciadas pela estrada, embora a comunidade em geral não seja muito distinta entre os dois locais.
Têm uma boa tabela com dados que podem ser analisados.
No entanto, não percebo como é que algumas das análises foram feitas, pois o nº total de observações é reduzidissimo!
BibTeX:
@article{Kuietal98,
  author = {Kuitunen, M. and Rossi, E. and Stenroos, A.},
  title = {Do highways influence density of land birds?},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {297--302}
}
Kulbicki, M. & Sarramégna, S. 1999 Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae Aquatic Living Resources 12:315--325     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{KulSar99,
  author = {Kulbicki, M. and Sarram{\'e}gna, S.},
  title = {Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of {Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae}},
  journal = {Aquatic Living Resources},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {315--325}
}
Kumar, N. 2000 Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of Ranthambore, India  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Kumar2000,
  author = {Kumar, N.S.},
  title = {Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of Ranthambore, India},
  school = {Salim Ali School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University},
  year = {2000}
}
Kun-Rodrigues, C., Salmona, J., Besolo, A., Rasolondraibe, E., Rabarivola, C., Marques, T. A. & Chikhi, L. 2014 New Density Estimates of a Threatened Sifaka Species (Propithecus coquereli) in Ankarafantsika National Park American Journal of Primatology :   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Kun-Rodrigues2013,
  author = {Célia Kun-Rodrigues and Jordi Salmona and Aubin Besolo and Emmanuel Rasolondraibe and Clément Rabarivola and Tiago A. Marques and Lounès Chikhi},
  title = {New Density Estimates of a Threatened Sifaka Species (\textit{Propithecus coquereli}) in Ankarafantsika National Park},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {10.1002/ajp.22243}
}
Kyhn, L. 2010 Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales, with implications for mitigation, management and biology  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kyhn2010,
  author = {Line Kyhn},
  title = {Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales, with implications for mitigation, management and biology},
  school = {Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark},
  year = {2010}
}
Kyhn, L., Tougaard, J., Thomas, L., Duve, L., Steinback, J., Amundin, M., Desportes, G. & Teilmann, J. 2012 From echolocation clicks to animal density - acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131:550-560      
BibTeX:
@article{L.A.2012,
  author = {Kyhn, L.A. and J. Tougaard and L. Thomas and L.R. Duve and J. Steinback and M. Amundin and G. Desportes and J. Teilmann},
  title = {From echolocation clicks to animal density - acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {550-560}
}
Laake, J. 2006 A Biologist's Nightmare Fairy Tale of Mark-Recapture Distance Sampling  :     PDF  
Review: Ver tb o ficheiro MRDS.ppt que está na pasta phdvariosp>Tenho IMPRESSO
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Laake2006,
  author = {Jeff Laake},
  title = {A Biologist's Nightmare Fairy Tale of Mark-Recapture Distance Sampling},
  year = {2006}
}
Laake, J., Collier, B., Morrison, M. & Wilkins, R. 2011 Point-based mark-recapture distance sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics 16:389-408   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2011,
  author = {Laake, J.L. and Collier, B.A. and Morrison, M.L. and Wilkins, R.N.},
  title = {Point-based mark-recapture distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {389-408},
  doi = {10.1007/s13253-011-0059-5}
}
Laake, J., Dawson, M. & Hone, J. 2008 Visibility bias in aerial survey: mark-recapture, line-transect or both? Wildlife Research 35:299--309      
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2008,
  author = {Laake, J. and Dawson, M.J. and Hone, J.},
  title = {Visibility bias in aerial survey: mark-recapture, line-transect or both?},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {299--309}
}
Laake, J., Guenzel, R. J., Bengtson, J. L., Boveng, P., Cameron, M. & Hanson, M. B. 2008 Coping with variation in aerial survey protocol for line-transect sampling Wildlife Research 35:289--299      
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2008a,
  author = {Laake, J. and Guenzel, R. J. and Bengtson, J. L. and Boveng, P. and Cameron, M. and Hanson, M. B.},
  title = {Coping with variation in aerial survey protocol for line-transect sampling},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {289--299}
}
Laake, J. L. 1999 Distance sampling with independent observers: reducing bias from heterogeneity by weakening the conditional independence assumption Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :137--148      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Laa99,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling with independent observers: reducing bias from heterogeneity by weakening the conditional independence assumption},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {137--148}
}
Laake, J. L. 1981 Abundance estimation of dolphins in the eastern Pacific with line transect sampling --- a comparison of the techniques and suggestions for future research Report of the Workshop on Tuna-Dolphin Interactions :56--95      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Laa81,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of dolphins in the eastern {P}acific with line transect sampling --- a comparison of the techniques and suggestions for future research},
  booktitle = {Report of the Workshop on Tuna--Dolphin Interactions},
  publisher = {Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, Special Report Number 4},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {56--95}
}
Laake, J. L. 1978 Line transect sampling estimators robust to animal movement  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{LAA78,
  author = {Laake,J. L.},
  title = {Line transect sampling estimators robust to animal movement},
  school = {Utah State University},
  year = {1978}
}
Laake, J. L. & Borchers, D. L. 2004 Methods for incomplete detection at distance zero Advanced Distance Sampling :108-189      
BibTeX:
@incollection{LAABOR04,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Methods for incomplete detection at distance zero},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {108-189}
}
Laake, J. L., Calambokidis, J. C., Osmek, S. D. & Rugh, D. J. 1997 Probability of detecting harbor porpoise from aerial surveys: estimating g(0) Journal of Wildlife Management 61:63--75      
BibTeX:
@article{Laa97,
  author = {Laake, J. L and Calambokidis, J. C and Osmek, S. D. and Rugh, D. J.},
  title = {Probability of detecting harbor porpoise from aerial surveys: estimating \textit{g(0)}},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {63--75}
}
Labrosse, P., Kulbicki, M. & Ferraris, J. 2002 Underwater visual fish census surveys: proper use and implementation  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Labrosse2002,
  author = {Pierre Labrosse and Michel Kulbicki and Jocelyne Ferraris},
  title = {Underwater visual fish census surveys: proper use and implementation},
  year = {2002}
}
Labrosse, P., Kulbicki, M. & Ferraris, J. 2001 Comptage Visuel de poissons en plongée  :      
BibTeX:
@book{Labrosse2001,
  author = {Labrosse, P. and Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J.},
  title = {Comptage Visuel de poissons en plongée},
  publisher = {Secrétariat Général de la Communauté du Pacifique},
  year = {2001}
}
Lacki, M. J., Hummer, J. W. & Fitzgerald, J. L. 1994 Application of line transects for estimating population density of the endangered copperbelly water snake in southern Indiana Journal of Herpetology 28:241--245      
BibTeX:
@article{Lacetal94,
  author = {Lacki, M. J. and Hummer, J. W. and Fitzgerald, J. L.},
  title = {Application of line transects for estimating population density of the endangered copperbelly water snake in southern {I}ndiana},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {241--245}
}
Laidre, K. L. & Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. 2011 Life in the lead: extreme densities of narwhals Monodon monoceros in the offshore pack ice Marine Ecology Progress Series 423:269--278   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Laidre2011,
  author = {Kristin L. Laidre and Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen},
  title = {Life in the lead: extreme densities of narwhals \textit{Monodon monoceros} in the offshore pack ice},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {423},
  pages = {269--278},
  doi = {10.3354/meps08941}
}
Laing, S. E., Buckland, S. T., Burn, R. W., Lambie, D. & Amphlett, A. 2003 Dung and nest surveys: estimating decay rate Journal of Applied Ecology 40:1102--1111     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Laietal03,
  author = {Laing, S. E and Buckland, S. T and Burn, R. W and Lambie, D. and Amphlett, A.},
  title = {Dung and nest surveys: estimating decay rate},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1102--1111}
}
Langbein, J., Hutchings, M. R., Harris, S., Stoate, C., Tapper, S. C. & Wray, S. 1999 Techniques for assessing the abundance of Brown Hares Lepus europaeus Mammal Review 29:93--116      
BibTeX:
@article{LAN99,
  author = {Langbein, J. and Hutchings, M. R. and Harris, S. and Stoate, C. and Tapper, S. C. and Wray, S.},
  title = {Techniques for assessing the abundance of Brown Hares \textit{Lepus europaeus}},
  journal = {Mammal Review},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {93--116}
}
Langrock, R., Borchers, D. L. & Skaug, H. J. 2013 Markov-modulated nonhomogeneous Poisson processes for unbiased estimation of marine mammal abundance Journal of the American Statistical Association 108:840--851   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Langrocksubmitted,
  author = {Roland Langrock and David L. Borchers and Hans J. Skaug},
  title = {Markov-modulated nonhomogeneous Poisson processes for unbiased estimation of marine mammal abundance},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {108},
  pages = {840--851},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2013.797356}
}
Larsen, F., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Martin, A. R. & Born, E. W. 1994 Line-transect estimation of abundance of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Scoresby Sund and adjacent waters Meddr Grønland, Bioscience 39:87--91      
BibTeX:
@article{Larsen1994,
  author = {Larsen, F. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Martin, A. R. and Born, E. W.},
  title = {Line-transect estimation of abundance of narwhals (\textit{Monodon monoceros}) in {Scoresby Sund} and adjacent waters},
  journal = {Meddr Grønland, Bioscience},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {87--91}
}
LaRue, M. A., Nielsen, C. K. & Grun, M. D. 2007 Using distance sampling to estimate densities of white-tailed deer in south-central Minnesota The Prairie Naturalist 39:39--52      
BibTeX:
@article{LaRue2007,
  author = {LaRue, M. A. and C. K. Nielsen and M. D. Grun},
  title = {Using distance sampling to estimate densities of white-tailed deer in south-central {M}innesota},
  journal = {The Prairie Naturalist},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {39--52}
}
Lauerman, L. M. L., Kaufmann, R. S. & Smith, K. L. 1996 Distribution and abundance of epibenthic megafauna at a long time-series station in the abyssal northeast Pacific Deep Sea Research I 43:1075--1103      
BibTeX:
@article{Lauetal,
  author = {Lauerman, L. M. L. and Kaufmann, R. S. and Smith, K. L.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of epibenthic megafauna at a long time-series station in the abyssal northeast {P}acific},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research I},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1075--1103}
}
Lauth, R., Ianelli, J. & Wakefield, W. 2004 Estimating the size selectivity and catching efficiency of a survey bottom trawl for thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp., using a towed video camera sled Fisheries Research 70:27-37      
BibTeX:
@article{Lauth2004,
  author = {Lauth, R.R. and J. Ianelli and W.W. Wakefield},
  title = {Estimating the size selectivity and catching efficiency of a survey bottom trawl for thornyheads, \textit{Sebastolobus} spp., using a towed video camera sled},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {27-37}
}
Lauth, R., Wakefield, W. & Smith., K. 2004 Estimating the density of thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp., using a towed video camera sled Fisheries Research 70:39-48      
BibTeX:
@article{Lauth2004a,
  author = {Lauth, R.R. and W.W. Wakefield and K. Smith.},
  title = {Estimating the density of thornyheads, \textit{Sebastolobus} spp., using a towed video camera sled},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {39-48}
}
Lawton, K., Robertson, G., Kirkwood, R., Valencia, J., Schlatter, R. & Smith, D. 2006 An estimate of population sizes of burrowing seabirds at the Diego Ramirez archipelago, Chile, using distance sampling and burrow-scoping Polar Biology 29:229--238      
Abstract: The Diego Ramirez Islands lie 60 nautical miles southwest of Cape Horn and are the breeding site for three species of burrowing seabirds: blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea), common diving petrels (Pelecanoides urinatrix) and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus). Burrowing seabirds are highly vulnerable to predation by introduced vertebrate pests, and Diego Ramirez is an important breeding site because it is one of a few remaining subantarctic island groups with no introduced predators. Diego Ramirez is the only known breeding site for blue petrels in the southeast Pacific region, holding about 80% of the global population of that species, and with a population ten times larger than any other population in the world. We estimated the population size in 2002, using a novel application of the distance sampling technique to determine burrow density, and a burrow-scope with excavations to determine occupying species. We found that density was correlated with slope angle and soil wetness. Burrow densities in flatter terrain with drier soils were 2.03 burrows/m2 (95% confidence intervals: 1.82-2.27) and 1.11 burrows/m2 (0.84-1.48) in steeper terrain with wetter soils. The occupation rate of burrows were significantly different between habitat types (t = 2.74, d.f. 11, P < 0.05); in flatter drier habitats the proportion of burrows that led to a nest was 0.85 (0.74-0.96), in steeper wetter habitats this decreased to 0.64 (0.50-0.78). We used a digital elevation model to calculate true area rather than planar area for the two habitat types on the main island of Bartolome, and charts to calculate planar area for the remainder of the archipelago. There were 1.35 (1.15-1.54) million pairs of blue petrels and 99,000 (65,000-134,000) pairs of common diving petrels on the archipelago. These are similar figures to those from the only previous estimate, made in 1980. We found breeding sooty shearwaters for the first time, and estimated a population of several thousand pairs. We emphasise the facility of distance sampling as an unbiased technique with practical advantages over commonly used area search methods for monitoring populations of burrowing seabirds. These advantages include increased survey efficiency allowing a larger sample size for a given effort and a correspondingly tighter estimation of density. © Springer-Verlag 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Lawton2006,
  author = {Lawton, K. and Robertson, G. and Kirkwood, R. and Valencia, J. and Schlatter, R. and Smith, D.},
  title = {An estimate of population sizes of burrowing seabirds at the Diego Ramirez archipelago, Chile, using distance sampling and burrow-scoping},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {29},
  number = {3},
  pages = {229--238}
}
Leaper, R., Gillespie, D. & Papastavrou, V. 2000 Results of passive acoustic surveys for odontocetes in the Southern Ocean Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2:187--196      
BibTeX:
@article{Leaper2000,
  author = {Russell Leaper and D Gillespie and Vassili Papastavrou},
  title = {Results of passive acoustic surveys for odontocetes in the Southern Ocean},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {187--196}
}
Leatherwood, S., Gilbert, J. R. & Chapman, D. G. 1978 An evaluation of some techniques for aerial censuses of bottlenosed dolphins Journal of Wildife Management 42:239--250      
BibTeX:
@article{Leaetal78,
  author = {Leatherwood, S. and Gilbert, J. R. and Chapman, D. G.},
  title = {An evaluation of some techniques for aerial censuses of bottlenosed dolphins},
  journal = {Journal of Wildife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {239--250}
}
Leatherwood, S. & Show, I. T., J. 1982 Effects of varying altitude on aerial surveys of bottlenose dolphins Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:569--575      
BibTeX:
@article{LeaSho82,
  author = {Leatherwood, S. and Show, I. T., Jr},
  title = {Effects of varying altitude on aerial surveys of bottlenose dolphins},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {569--575}
}
Leatherwood, S., Show, I. T., J., Reeves, R. R. & Wright, M. B. 1982 Proposed modification of transect models to estimate population size from aircraft with obstructed downward visibility Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:577--579      
BibTeX:
@article{Leaetal82,
  author = {Leatherwood, S. and Show, I. T., Jr and Reeves, R. R. and Wright, M. B.},
  title = {Proposed modification of transect models to estimate population size from aircraft with obstructed downward visibility},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {577--579}
}
Lee, D. C. & Marsden, S. J. 2008 Adjusting count period strategies to improve the accuracy of forest bird abundance estimates from point transect distance sampling surveys Ibis 150:315-325   DOI URL   PDF  
Abstract: Although point transect distance sampling methods have become widely used in surveys of forest birds, there has been no attempt to tailor field methods to maximize the accuracy of abundance estimates by minimizing the effects of violations of the method's critical assumptions, which are: (1) birds at distance 0 m are detected with certainty, (2) birds are detected at their initial location and (3) distances to objects are measured accurately. We investigate the effects on abundance estimates for Philippine forest birds of varying the count period from 2 to 10 min, and of including and excluding a pre-count settling down period. Encounter rates were highly sensitive to count period length but density estimates from 10-min count periods were, on average, only 13% higher than those from 2-min periods, and in several cases were actually lower than those from periods of 6-8 min. This was because birds tended to be recorded at greater distances from the recorder as the count period went on, thus ‘stretching out’ detection functions while having little effect on detection rates close to the recorder. For some bird groups, including canopy frugivores and upperstorey gleaning insectivores, density estimates were more than twice as high without than with a settling down period. We suggest that movement away from the recorder is more common than attraction to the recorder, and that unless pilot studies show otherwise, similar studies should not use a settling down period for surveying many species. Count periods that maximized probability of bird detection close to the central point while minimizing the unwanted effects of bird movement during the count period were: 4 min for omnivores, 6 min for nectarivores and upperstorey gleaning insectivores, 8 min for understorey insectivores and canopy frugivores, and a full 10 min for sallying insectivores, ground-dwellers, carnivores and coucals/koels. We use the results to suggest ‘group-specific’ count period regimes that could help maximize the accuracy of density estimates from similar studies of tropical forest birds.
BibTeX:
@article{LEE2008,
  author = {Lee,David C. and Marsden,Stuart J.},
  title = {Adjusting count period strategies to improve the accuracy of forest bird abundance estimates from point transect distance sampling surveys},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {150},
  pages = {315-325},
  url = {http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00790.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00790.x}
}
Legault, A., Theuerkauf, J., Baby, E., Moutin, L., Rouys, S., Saoumoé, M., Verfaille, L., Barré, N., Chartendrault, V. & Gula, R. 2013 Standardising distance sampling surveys of parrots in New Caledonia Journal of Ornithology 154:19-33   DOI URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Legault2013,
  author = {Legault, Andrew and Theuerkauf, Jörn and Baby, Emilie and Moutin, Laetitia and Rouys, Sophie and Saoumoé, Maurice and Verfaille, Ludovic and Barré, Nicolas and Chartendrault, Vivien and Gula, Roman},
  title = {Standardising distance sampling surveys of parrots in {New Caledonia}},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {154},
  pages = {19-33},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0864-9},
  doi = {10.1007/s10336-012-0864-9}
}
Lehmkuhl, J. F., Burger, E. D., Drewc, E. K., Lindsey, J. P., Haggard, M. & Woodruff, K. Z. 2007 Breeding Birds in Riparian and Upland Dry Forests of the Cascade Range Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2632--2643      
BibTeX:
@article{Lehmkuhla2007,
  author = {John F. Lehmkuhl and E. Dorsey Burger and Emily K. Drewc and John P. Lindsey and Maryellen Haggard and Kent Z. Woodruff},
  title = {Breeding Birds in Riparian and Upland Dry Forests of the Cascade Range},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {2632--2643}
}
Lehouck, V., Spanhove, T., Vangestel, C., Cordeiro, N. & Lens, L. 2009 Does landscape structure affect resource tracking by avian frugivores in a fragmented Afrotropical forest? Ecography 32:789-799   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Lehouck2009789,
  author = {Lehouck, V. and Spanhove, T. and Vangestel, C. and Cordeiro, N.J. and Lens, L.},
  title = {Does landscape structure affect resource tracking by avian frugivores in a fragmented Afrotropical forest?},
  journal = {Ecography},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {32},
  number = {5},
  pages = {789-799},
  note = {cited By (since 1996) 0},
  url = {http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-70349675645&partnerID=40&md5=3b13a6a8a11e20d5f47f833a60e91b82}
}
Lennert-Cody, C. E., Buckland, S. T. & Marques, F. F. C. 2001 Trends in dolphin abundance estimated from fisheries data: a cautionary note Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3:305--319     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Lennert-Cody2001,
  author = {Lennert-Cody, C E and Buckland, S T and Marques, F F C},
  title = {Trends in dolphin abundance estimated from fisheries data: a cautionary note},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {305--319}
}
Leopold, M. F., vanderWerf, B., Ries, E. H. & Reijnders, P. J. H. 1997 The importance of the North Sea for winter dispersal of harbour seals Phoca vitulinafrom the Wadden Sea Biological Conservation 81:97--102      
BibTeX:
@article{Leo97,
  author = {Leopold, M. F. and vanderWerf, B. and Ries, E. H. and Reijnders, P. J. H.},
  title = {The importance of the {N}orth {S}ea for winter dispersal of harbour seals \em {P}hoca vitulina\em from the {W}adden {S}ea},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {97--102}
}
Lerczak, J. A. & Hobbs, R. C. 1998 Calculating sighting distances from angle readings during ship-board, aerial and shore-based marine mammal surveys Marine Mammal Science 14:590--598      
BibTeX:
@article{LerHob98,
  author = {Lerczak, J. A. and Hobbs, R. C.},
  title = {Calculating sighting distances from angle readings during ship-board, aerial and shore-based marine mammal surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {590--598}
}
LeResche, R. E. & Rausch, R. A. 1974 Accuracy and precision of aerial moose censusing Journal of Wildlife Management 38:175--182      
BibTeX:
@article{LerRau74,
  author = {LeResche, R. E. and Rausch, R. A.},
  title = {Accuracy and precision of aerial moose censusing},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {175--182}
}
Lescrauwaet, A.-C., Gibbons, J., Guzman, L. & Schiavini, A. 2000 Abundance estimation of Commerson's dolphin in the eastern area of the Strait of Magallan-Chile Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 73:473-478     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Lescrauwaet2000,
  author = {Lescrauwaet, Anne-Catherine and Gibbons, Jorge and Guzman, Leonardo and Schiavini, A.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of Commerson's dolphin in the eastern area of the Strait of Magallan-Chile},
  journal = {Revista Chilena de Historia Natural},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {473-478}
}
Lessard, V., Drummer, T. & Reed, D. 2002 Precision of density estimates from fixed-radius plots compared to n-tree distance sampling Forest Science 48:1--6      
Abstract: We computed and compared the statistical properties of the estimators for the number of trees/ha (density) for fixed-radius plot and n-tree distance sampling. In forests with random spatial patterns, n-tree distance sampling density estimators are at least as precise as those of plot sampling if the fixed-radius plot size is less than the ratio of (n - 2) and the expected density, where n is the number of trees included at an n-tree location. A similar result holds for the clustered forest, where the ratio is multiplied by a factor involving a constant of heterogeneity. If the expected number of trees per plot and the plot sizes are the same for both the random and clustered spatial patterns, the variance of the plot sampling density estimator for the clustered pattern will always be greater than for that of the random spatial pattern.
BibTeX:
@article{Lessard2002,
  author = {Lessard, V.C. and Drummer, T.D. and Reed, D.D.},
  title = {Precision of density estimates from fixed-radius plots compared to n-tree distance sampling},
  journal = {Forest Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--6}
}
Leuteritz, T., Lamb, T. & Limberaza, J. 2005 Distribution, status, and conservation of radiated tortoises (Geochelone radiata) in Madagascar Biological Conservation 124:451--461      
BibTeX:
@article{Leuteritz2005,
  author = {Leuteritz, T.E.J. and Lamb, T. and Limberaza, J.C.},
  title = {Distribution, status, and conservation of radiated tortoises (Geochelone radiata) in Madagascar},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124},
  number = {4},
  pages = {451--461}
}
Lewis, T., Gillespie, D., Lacey, C., Matthews, J., Danbolt, M., Leaper, R., McLanaghan, R. & Moscrop, A. 2007 Sperm whale abundance estimates from acoustic surveys of the Ionian Sea and Straits of Sicily in 2003 Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87:353--357     PDF  
Review: This is "standard" distance sampling but where distances are gathered by accoustics rather than visual detectors.
BibTeX:
@article{Lewis,
  author = {T. Lewis and D. Gillespie and C. Lacey and J. Matthews and M. Danbolt and R. Leaper and R. McLanaghan and A. Moscrop},
  title = {Sperm whale abundance estimates from acoustic {surveys of the Ionian Sea and Straits of Sicily in 2003}},
  journal = {Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {353--357}
}
Link, W. A. & Barker, R. J. 1994 Density estimation using the trapping web design --- a geometric analysis Biometrics 50:733--745      
BibTeX:
@article{LinBar94,
  author = {Link, W. A. and Barker, R. J.},
  title = {Density estimation using the trapping web design --- a geometric analysis},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {733--745}
}
Link, W. A. & Sauer, J. R. 1997 Estimation of population trajectories from count data Biometrics 53:488--497      
BibTeX:
@article{LinSau97,
  author = {Link, W. A. and Sauer, J. R.},
  title = {Estimation of population trajectories from count data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {488--497}
}
Linklater, W. L., Cameron, E. Z., Stafford, K. J. & Minot, E. O. 2001 Estimating Kaimanawa feral horse population size and growth  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Linklater2001,
  author = {Linklater, W. L. and Cameron, E. Z. and Stafford, K. J. and Minot, E. O.},
  title = {Estimating Kaimanawa feral horse population size and growth},
  year = {2001},
  number = {185}
}
Liu, Z., Wang, X., Teng, L., Cui, D. & Li, X. 2008 Estimating seasonal density of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in the Helan Mountain region using distance sampling methods Ecological Research 23:393--400      
BibTeX:
@article{Liu2008,
  author = {Liu, Z and Wang, X and Teng, L and Cui, D and Li, X},
  title = {Estimating seasonal density of blue sheep (\textit{Pseudois nayaur}) in the {Helan Mountain} region using distance sampling methods},
  journal = {Ecological Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {393--400}
}
Lloyd, H. 2004 Habitat and population estimates of some threatened lowland forest bird species in Tambopata, south-east Peru Bird Conservation International 14:261--277      
Abstract: Surveys of threatened lowland forest bird species and forest habitats were conducted during a 21-month census of lowland bird communities in Tambopata, Department of Madre de Dios, south-east Peru. A combination of distance sampling census methods and direct counts was used for the census in five sites located along the Rio Madre de Dios and Rio Tambopata. All five sites consisted of different forest types with significantly different habitat components. Three of these sites were classified as primary forest habitats whilst the remaining two were classified as disturbed forests. Population densities were calculated for eight of the threatened species recorded during the census. Density estimates of non-bamboo specialists were higher in primary forest habitats than in disturbed forest habitats. Density estimates of most bamboo specialists were higher in primary Old Floodplain forest with extensive bamboo understorey than in primary Middle/Upper Floodplain forest with smaller, patchy areas of bamboo understorey. Calculation of regional population estimates based on the amount of forest cover from satellite photographs shows that only two of the threatened bird species have substantial populations currently protected by the Parque Nacional Bahuaja-Sonene and Reservada Nacional de Tambopata. Selective logging operations that reduce overall tree biomass and remove a large proportion of palm tree species from primary forest habitats will have an adverse affect on local populations of four of the threatened bird species in the region. © BirdLife International 2004.
BibTeX:
@article{Lloyd2004,
  author = {Lloyd, H.},
  title = {Habitat and population estimates of some threatened lowland forest bird species in Tambopata, south-east Peru},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {261--277}
}
Lloyd, H. 2003 Population densities of some nocturnal raptor species (Strigidae) in southeastern Peru Journal of Field Ornithology 74:376--380      
Abstract: Line transects based on distance sampling methodology were used to census nocturnal raptor species in three different primary lowland forest habitats in the Tambopata region, southeastren Peru. Density estimates were calculated for five owl species in these forest habitats. In general, species were more abundant in primary old floodplain or primary middle/upper floodplain forests than in primary seasonally flooded swamp forest. Density estimates were also higher than those calculated from traditional spot-mapping methods in other lowland forest sites in southeastern Peru and French Guiana. There was no significant difference in the number of individual owls recorded during nights with different cloud cover or during different phases of the moon. Problems of distance estimation at night and unfamiliarity with a range of vocalizations, particularly with Strix owls, may be overcome by conducting a practice period before surveys are undertaken, with transect routes and distance markers adequately set out. Walking transect routes during daylight hours in a practice period also helps to overcome concerns of observer safety.
BibTeX:
@article{Lloyd2003,
  author = {Lloyd, H.},
  title = {Population densities of some nocturnal raptor species (Strigidae) in southeastern Peru},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {74},
  number = {4},
  pages = {376--380}
}
Lochmiller, R. L., Boggs, J. F., McMurry, S. T., Leslie, D. M. & Engle, D. M. 1991 Response of cottontail rabbit populations to herbicide and fire applications on Cross Timbers rangeland Journal of Range Management 44:150--155      
BibTeX:
@article{Locetal,
  author = {Lochmiller, R. L. and Boggs, J. F. and McMurry, S. T. and Leslie, D. M. and Engle, D. M.},
  title = {Response of cottontail rabbit populations to herbicide and fire applications on {C}ross {T}imbers rangeland},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {150--155}
}
Low, M., Meyer, L. & Southwell, C. 2008 Experimental evaluation of a new ground-based survey method for estimating the density and abundance of nesting Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae Polar Biology 31:309--315      
BibTeX:
@article{Low2008,
  author = {Matthew Low and Lisa Meyer and Colin Southwell},
  title = {Experimental evaluation of a new ground-based survey method for estimating the density and abundance of nesting {A}d\'{e}lie penguins \textit{Pygoscelis adeliae}},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {309--315}
}
Lowin, A. J. 2012 Line-transect distance sampling versus a new vocalisation method to estimate crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus) and Sanford’s brown lemur (Eulemur sanfordi) population densities Lemur News 16:60-64      
BibTeX:
@article{Lowin2012,
  author = {Andrew J. Lowin},
  title = {Line-transect distance sampling versus a new vocalisation method to estimate crowned lemur (\textit{Eulemur coronatus}) and Sanford’s brown lemur (\textit{Eulemur sanfordi}) population densities},
  journal = {Lemur News},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {60-64}
}
Lueders, A., Kennedy, P. & Johnson, D. 2006 Influences of management regimens on breeding bird densities and habitat in mixed-grass prairie: An Example from North Dakota Journal of Wildlife Management 70:600--606      
BibTeX:
@article{Lueders2006,
  author = {Lueders, A.S. and Kennedy, P.L. and Johnson, D.H.},
  title = {Influences of management regimens on breeding bird densities and habitat in mixed-grass prairie: An Example from North Dakota},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {70},
  number = {2},
  pages = {600--606}
}
Luiselli, L. 2006 Site occupancy and density of sympatric Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) and nose-horned viper (Bitis nasicornis) Journal of Tropical Ecology 22:555--564      
Abstract: The presence and density of two sympatric, large-sized vipers (the Gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica and the nose-horned viper, Bitis nasicornis) were studied along several transects, during both dry and wet seasons, and at different times of day, in southern Nigeria (West Africa). Three habitat types were found along the various transects (mature rain forest (MF), secondary rain forest (SF), swamp forest (SW)). The detection probabilities for these vipers were modelled with a set of competing models, and the various models were ordered by Akaike Information Criterion procedures. Two classes of models were used: the single-season model, and the multi-species model. The best models (single-season model) suggested that: for the Gaboon viper, habitat types SF and SW were particularly important in detecting this species, especially during the rainy season at 08h00-16h00. For nose-horned vipers, the best models had SW and MF as site-covariates. Application of the multi-species model revealed that there were different detection functions if both species are present at a site, with a 'negative' interaction of occupancy between the species. Females and males were similarly detectable in a logistic regression model, but feeding status and pregnancy slightly increased detection probability in a logistic regression model. Viper density was modelled by a DISTANCE sampling procedure. The density of one species tended to be inversely correlated to the density of the other, suggesting that (1) the rain-forest environment does not support abundant populations of both vipers when sympatric, and (2) the two Bitis species subtly partition the habitat resources. Copyright © 2006 Cambridge University Press.
BibTeX:
@article{Luiselli2006,
  author = {Luiselli, L.},
  title = {Site occupancy and density of sympatric Gaboon viper \textit{(Bitis gabonica)} and nose-horned viper \textit{(Bitis nasicornis)}},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22},
  number = {5},
  pages = {555--564}
}
Lukacs, P., Kissling, M., Reid, M., Gende, S. & Lewis, S. 2010 Testing assumptions of distance sampling on a pelagic seabird The Condor 112:455-459     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Lukacs2010,
  author = {Lukacs, P.M. and Kissling, M.L. and Reid, M and Gende, S.M. and Lewis, S.B.},
  title = {Testing assumptions of distance sampling on a pelagic seabird},
  journal = {The Condor},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {112},
  pages = {455-459}
}
Lukacs, P. M. 2002 WebSim: simulation software to assist in trapping web design Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:1259--1261      
BibTeX:
@article{Luk02,
  author = {Lukacs, P. M.},
  title = {WebSim: simulation software to assist in trapping web design},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {1259--1261}
}
Lukacs, P. M. 2001 Estimating Density of Animal Populations using Trapping Webs: Evaluation of Web Design and Data Analysis  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Luk01,
  author = {Lukacs, P. M.},
  title = {Estimating Density of Animal Populations using Trapping Webs: Evaluation of Web Design and Data Analysis},
  school = {Colorado State University},
  year = {2001}
}
Lukacs, P. M., Franklin, A. B. & Anderson, D. R. 2004 Passive approaches to detection in distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling :108-189      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Lukacs2004,
  author = {P. M. Lukacs And A. B. Franklin And D. R. Anderson},
  title = {Passive approaches to detection in distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {108-189}
}
Lusk, M., Hess, S., Reynolds, M. & Johnston, S. 2000 Population status of the Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae) on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Micronesica 32:181--190     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Lusk2000,
  author = {Lusk, M and Hess, S and Reynolds, M and Johnston, S},
  title = {Population status of the Tinian Monarch (\textit{Monarcha takatsukasae}) on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands},
  journal = {Micronesica},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {32},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181--190}
}
Lynch, T. B. & Rusydi, R. 1999 Distance sampling for forest inventory in Indonesian teak plantations Forest Ecology and Management 113:215--221      
Abstract: Distance sampling techniques were compared to point (variable plot) sampling and fixed-radius circular plot sampling for inventory of teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Indonesia. n-tree distance sampling selects the n trees closest to a sample point located in the field. The distance to the nth closest tree is used as a plot radius. Two n-tree estimators were compared. Prodan (1968) described a technique for n=6, which counts the nth tree as 1/2 for tree counts and tree volume (or other tree attributes). Another approach, here called 'the (n-1)/n adjusted estimator' uses the bias correction factor (n-1)/n. Eberhardt (1967) demonstrated that the (n-1)/n adjusted estimator is unbiased for Poisson (random) and negative binomial (clumped) spatial distributions. No proof of unbiasedness is known for either method in uniform distributions which would be characteristics of plantations. n-tree sampling was performed in Indonesian teak plantations for values of n ranging from 3 to 10 for both methods. At the same locations, point (variable plot) samples with metric basal area factors 1 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and 2 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and fixed-radius circular plots 0.1 ha in size were installed for comparison with the n-tree distance methods. The time required for each sampling method was recorded at each field location. For each method, an efficiency ratio was calculated as (C(k)/2 x Time(k))/(C(0.1 ha)/2 x Time(0.1 ha)) where C(k) is the coefficient of variation for method k, Time(k) is the average time required for method k, C(0.1 ha) is the coefficient of variation for 0.1 ha plots and Time(0.1 ha) is the average time required for 0.1 ha plots. The more efficient methods have smaller efficiency ratios. According to this criterion, 5-tree distance sampling using Prodan's estimator was most efficient of the techniques compared that did not show bias for these data. The (n-1)/n adjusted estimator showed bias for these trials in teak plantations. This was probably due to the uniform spatial distribution characteristics of plantations. Point sampling with BAF=1 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and BAF=2 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and 0.1 ha plot sampling were not as efficient as n-tree sampling methods for these trials.
BibTeX:
@article{Lynch1999,
  author = {Lynch, T. B. and Rusydi, R.},
  title = {Distance sampling for forest inventory in Indonesian teak plantations},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {113},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {215--221}
}
Mack, Y. & Quang, P. X. 1998 Kernel methods in line and point transect sampling Biometrics 54:606--619      
BibTeX:
@article{MAC&QUA98,
  author = {Mack, Y. and Quang,P. X.},
  title = {Kernel methods in line and point transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {606--619}
}
Mack, Y. P. 1998 Testing for the shoulder condition in transect sampling Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods 27:423--432      
BibTeX:
@article{Mac98,
  author = {Mack, Y. P.},
  title = {Testing for the shoulder condition in transect sampling},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {423--432}
}
Mack, Y. P., Quang, P. X. & Zhang, S. 1999 Kernel estimation in transect sampling without the shoulder condition Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods 28:2277--2296      
BibTeX:
@article{Macetal99,
  author = {Mack, Y. P. and Quang, P. X. and Zhang, S.},
  title = {Kernel estimation in transect sampling without the shoulder condition},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics --- Theory and Methods},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {2277--2296}
}
Mackintosh, N. A. & Brown, S. G. 1956 Estimates of the southern population of the larger baleen whales The Norwegian Gazette 45:469      
BibTeX:
@article{MAcBro56,
  author = {Mackintosh, N. A. and Brown, S. G.},
  title = {Estimates of the southern population of the larger baleen whales},
  journal = {The Norwegian Gazette},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {469}
}
MacLeod, C., Blackwell, G., Weller, F. & Moller, H. 2012 Designing a bird monitoring scheme for New Zealand’s agricultural sectors New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36:312-323   URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{MacLeod2012,
  author = {MacLeod, C. and Blackwell, G. and Weller, F. and Moller, H.},
  title = {Designing a bird monitoring scheme for New Zealand’s agricultural sectors},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {312-323},
  url = {http://www.newzealandecology.org/nzje/abstract.php?volume_issue=j36_3&pdf_filename=NZJEcol36_3_312.pdf&uniqueID=3045}
}
Macleod, K. 2004 Abundance of Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) during summer off northwest Scotland Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6:33--40      
Abstract: A shipboard cetacean survey was conducted in July/August 1998 within an area to the west of Scotland, UK, commonly known as the Atlantic Frontier. The aim of the survey was to document the distribution and abundance of cetaceans to provide baseline population data for an area that is being increasingly explored and developed by oil companies. A double platform ‘independent observer’ (IO) method was used to estimate the abundance of the Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) using standard line-transect and distance sampling methodology. Previously, uncorrected Atlantic white-sided dolphin abundance was estimated as 27,194 (CV = 0.29) from this survey. This paper presents abundance estimates corrected for g(0) < 1 using a direct duplicate method. The value of g(0) was estimated to be 0.61 (CV = 0.09). The abundance in two strata was estimated as 21,371 (CV = 0.54) to the west of the Outer Hebrides and74,626 (CV = 0.72) in the Faroe Shetland Channel. The high CVs are the result of small sample sizes, particularly of the duplicate data set. However, the abundance estimates represent the first for this species to the northwest of Scotland and adds to existing baseline abundance estimates for small cetaceans in UK waters. The results could be useful for planning future surveys that aim to calculate more precise abundance estimates. These results, together with opportunistic sightings data collected during other surveys, suggest that the waters to the west of Scotland are an important habitat for the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. Presently, threats to this species in the area are relatively unknown but a baseline population estimate will be an integral part of any management regime should there become a need in future.
BibTeX:
@article{Macleod2004,
  author = {Macleod, K.},
  title = {Abundance of Atlantic white-sided dolphin (\textit{Lagenorhynchus acutus}) during summer off northwest Scotland},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {33--40}
}
Macleod, K., Simmonds, M. & Murray, E. 2006 Abundance of fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and sei whales (B. borealis) amid oil exploration and development off northwest Scotland Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:247--254      
Review: A ship-based line transect survey was conducted during July-August 1998 to assess the distribution and abundance of cetaceans off
northwest Scotland. Limited information from dedicated surveys exists for this area and the lack of baseline data is cause for concern
given the expanding oil industry in these waters. Historical whaling records show that large numbers of baleen whales, particularly fin
and sei whales, were captured in these waters during summer. The waters surveyed included former whaling grounds and currently
licensed oil blocks to the west of the Outer Hebrides and the Faroe-Shetland Channel and both fin and sei whales were encountered.
Neither species was recorded to the west of the Outer Hebrides whereas relatively high densities of both were recorded further north in
the Faroe-Shetland Channel. The density of fin and sei whales was 0.021km–2 and 0.022km–2, respectively. Abundance was
estimated as 933 (CV=0.38) fin whales, 1,011 (CV=0.35) sei whales and 1,923 (CV=0.33) ‘large whales’. The high density of whales
recorded in the Faroe-Shetland Channel supports the idea that it is an important summer feeding ground for both species and the
potential for acoustic disturbance associated with increasing industrialisation of this area is a concern. Factors affecting the distribution
and abundance of these whales are discussed
BibTeX:
@article{Macleod2006,
  author = {Macleod, K. and Simmonds, M.P. and Murray, E.},
  title = {Abundance of fin (\textit{Balaenoptera physalus}) and sei whales (\textit{B. borealis}) amid oil exploration and development off northwest {S}cotland},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {247--254}
}
MacRae, P. & Jackson, D. 2006 Characterizing north temperate lake littoral fish assemblages: A comparison between distance sampling and minnow traps Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63:558--568      
Abstract: To determine which sampling method may be best employed to monitor changes in fish species composition in littoral areas of small north temperate lakes (50 ha), data were collected using distance sampling, based on the line transect method, and a traditional fish sampling method of baited minnow traps. These methods were independently biased in terms of their estimates of species presence and abundance. However, analyses of fish community structure indicated that minnow trap data alone provided a better measure of community structure than did distance sampling data alone. Distance sampling, although a powerful tool in estimating population density, is hindered by a multitude of environmental variables that do not preclude the use of minnow traps. Lakes with clear water containing few species with abundant individuals are best suited for distance sampling. Minnow traps proved to be a fast, efficacious sampling method capable of fairly accurately defining the littoral small-fish community structure in most lakes sampled. These traps are a reliable method for monitoring presence or absence and relative abundance of small-bodied fish species in north temperate lakes. However, the combination of minnow traps and some form of visual sampling will help to ensure that all species are detected in small north temperate lakes. © 2006 NRC.
BibTeX:
@article{MacRae2006,
  author = {MacRae, P.S.D. and Jackson, D.A.},
  title = {Characterizing north temperate lake littoral fish assemblages: A comparison between distance sampling and minnow traps},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {63},
  number = {3},
  pages = {558--568}
}
Madhusudan, M. D. & Karanth, K. U. 2000 Hunting for an answer: is local hunting compatible with large mammal conservation in India? Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests :339-354      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Madhusudan2000,
  author = {Madhusudan, M. D. and Karanth, K. U.},
  title = {Hunting for an answer: is local hunting compatible with large mammal conservation in India?},
  booktitle = {Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests},
  publisher = {Columbia University Press},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {339-354}
}
Magige, F. J., Holmern, T., Stokke, S., Mlingwa, C. & Røskaft, E. 2009 Does illegal hunting affect density and behaviour of African grassland birds? A case study on ostrich (Struthio camelus) Biodiversity and Conservation 18:1361-1373      
BibTeX:
@article{Magige2008,
  author = {Flora John Magige and Tomas Holmern and Sigbjørn Stokke and Charles Mlingwa and Eivin Røskaft},
  title = {Does illegal hunting affect density and behaviour of African grassland birds? A case study on ostrich (\textit{Struthio camelus})},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {1361-1373}
}
Magoulick, D. 2004 Effects of predation risk on habitat selection by water column fish, benthic fish and crayfish in stream pools Hydrobiologia 527:209--221      
BibTeX:
@article{Magoulick2004,
  author = {Magoulick, D.D.},
  title = {Effects of predation risk on habitat selection by water column fish, benthic fish and crayfish in stream pools},
  journal = {Hydrobiologia},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {527},
  number = {1},
  pages = {209--221}
}
Maheshwari, A. 2006 Food Habits and Prey Abundance of Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary  :      
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Maheshwari2006,
  author = {Maheshwari, A.},
  title = {Food Habits and Prey Abundance of Leopard (\textit{Panthera pardus fusca}) in Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary},
  school = {Aligarh Muslim University},
  year = {2006}
}
Mandujano, S. & Gallina, S. 1995 Comparison of deer censusing methods in tropical dry forest Wildlife Society Bulletin 23:180--186      
BibTeX:
@article{ManGal95,
  author = {Mandujano, S. and Gallina, S.},
  title = {Comparison of deer censusing methods in tropical dry forest},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {180--186}
}
Manly, B. F. J. 2002 Estimating a resource selection function with line transect sampling Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences 6:213--228      
Abstract: A resource selection probability function is a function that gives the probability
that a resource unit (e.g., a plot of land) that is described by a set of habitat
variables X1 to Xp will be used by an animal or group of animals in a certain period of
time. The estimation of a resource selection function is usually based on the comparison
of a sample of resource units used by an animal with a sample of the resource units
that were available for use, with both samples being assumed to be e.ectively randomly
selected from the relevant populations. In this paper the possibility of using a modi.ed
sampling scheme is examined, with the used units obtained by line transect sampling. A
logistic regression type of model is proposed, with estimation by conditional maximum
likelihood. A simulation study indicates that the model in its full generality may be
di.cult to estimate with reasonable sample sizes, but that a simpler version may be a
practical alternative.
BibTeX:
@article{Manly2002,
  author = {Manly, B. F. J.},
  title = {Estimating a resource selection function with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {213--228}
}
Manly, B. F. J. 2001 Study Design Considerations for Aerial Surveys in the Spring and Fall to Estimate the Abundance of Pacific Walrus  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Manly2001,
  author = {Manly, B. F. J.},
  title = {Study Design Considerations for Aerial Surveys in the Spring and Fall to Estimate the Abundance of Pacific Walrus},
  year = {2001}
}
Manly, B. F. J., McDonald, L. L. & Garner, G. W. 1996 Maximum likelihood estimation for the double-count method with independent observers Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 1:170--189      
BibTeX:
@article{Manetal96,
  author = {Manly, B. F. J and McDonald, L. L. and Garner, G. W.},
  title = {Maximum likelihood estimation for the double-count method with independent observers},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {170--189}
}
Mar, K. L. & Mcarthur, C. 2005 Comparison of habitat selection by two sympatric macropods, Thylogale billardierii and Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus, in a patchy eucalypt-forestry environment Austral Ecology 30:674--683     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Mar2005,
  author = {Kirsten Le Mar and Clare Mcarthur},
  title = {Comparison of habitat selection by two sympatric macropods, \textit{Thylogale billardierii} and \textit{Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus}, in a patchy eucalypt-forestry environment},
  journal = {Austral Ecology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {674--683}
}
Marcus Rowcliffe, J., Carbone, C., Jansen, P. A., Kays, R. & Kranstauber, B. 2011 Quantifying the sensitivity of camera traps: an adapted distance sampling approach Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2:464--476   DOI   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{MEE3:MEE394,
  author = {Marcus Rowcliffe, J. and Carbone, Chris and Jansen, Patrick A. and Kays, Roland and Kranstauber, Bart},
  title = {Quantifying the sensitivity of camera traps: an adapted distance sampling approach},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {5},
  pages = {464--476},
  doi = {10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00094.x}
}
Marini, F., Franzetti, B., Calabrese, A., Cappellini, S. & Focardi, S. 2009 Response to human presence during nocturnal line transect surveys in fallow deer (Dama dama) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) European Journal of Wildlife Research 56:233-237      
BibTeX:
@article{Marini2008,
  author = {Francesca Marini and Barbara Franzetti and Alessandro Calabrese and Sara Cappellini and Stefano Focardi},
  title = {Response to human presence during nocturnal line transect surveys in fallow deer (\textit{Dama dama}) and wild boar (\textit{Sus scrofa})},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {233-237}
}
Marques, F. F. C. 2001 Estimating wildlife distribution and abundance from line transect surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity  :      
Review: Changed on 15-11-2006
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{FMAR01,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C.},
  title = {Estimating wildlife distribution and abundance from line transect surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity},
  school = {University of St. Andrews},
  year = {2001}
}
Marques, F. F. C. & Buckland, S. T. 2004 Covariate models for the detection function Advanced Distance Sampling :31-47      
BibTeX:
@incollection{FMARBUC04,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Covariate models for the detection function},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {31-47}
}
Marques, F. F. C. & Buckland, S. T. 2003 Incorporating covariates into standard line transect analyses Biometrics 59:924--935     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{FMARBUC03,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Incorporating covariates into standard line transect analyses},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {924--935}
}
Marques, F. F. C., Buckland, S. T., Goffin, D., Dixon, C. E., Borchers, D. L., Mayle, B. A. & Peace, A. J. 2001 Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland Journal of Applied Ecology 38:349--363     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Maretal01,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T. and Goffin, D. and Dixon, C. E. and Borchers, D. L. and Mayle, B. A. and Peace, A. J.},
  title = {Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern {S}cotland},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {349--363}
}
Marques, T. A. 2009 Distance sampling: estimating animal density Significance 6:136--137      
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2009h,
  author = {Tiago A. Marques},
  title = {Distance sampling: estimating animal density},
  journal = {Significance},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {136--137}
}
Marques, T. A. 2007 Incorporating measurement error and density gradients in distance sampling surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Marques2007,
  author = {Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Incorporating measurement error and density gradients in distance sampling surveys},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2007}
}
Marques, T. A. 2004 Predicting and correcting bias caused by measurement error in line transect sampling using multiplicative error models Biometrics 60:757--763     PDF  
Abstract: Line transect sampling is one of the most widely used methods for animal abundance assessment. Standard estimation methods assume certain detection on the transect, no animal movement, and no measurement errors. Failure of the assumptions can cause substantial bias. In this work, the effect of error measurement on line transect estimators is investigated. Based on considerations of the process generating the errors, a multiplicative error model is presented and a simple way of correcting estimates based on knowledge of the error distribution is proposed. Using beta models for the error distribution, the effect of errors and of the proposed correction is assessed by simulation. Adequate confidence intervals for the corrected estimates are obtained using a bootstrap variance estimate for the correction and the delta method. As noted by Chen (1998, Biometrics 54, 899-908), even unbiased estimators of the distances might lead to biased density estimators, depending on the actual error distribution. In contrast with the findings of Chen, who used an additive model, unbiased estimation of distances, given a multiplicative model, lead to over-estimation of density. Some error distributions result in observed distance distributions that make efficient estimation impossible, by removing the shoulder present in the original detection function. This indicates the need to improve field methods to reduce measurement error. An application of the new methods to a real data set is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2004,
  author = {Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Predicting and correcting bias caused by measurement error in line transect sampling using multiplicative error models},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {60},
  number = {3},
  pages = {757--763}
}
Marques, T. A. 2002 Amostragem por Distâncias em Populações Naturais  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Marques2002,
  author = {Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Amostragem por Distâncias em Populações Naturais},
  school = {Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa},
  year = {2002}
}
Marques, T. A., Andersen, M., Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A., Wiig, O., Buckland, S. T. & Aars, J. 2006 The use of global positioning systems to record distances in a helicopter line-transect survey Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:759--763   URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Maretal06,
  author = {Marques, Tiago A. and Andersen, Magnus and Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe and Belikov, Stanislav and Boltunov, Andrei and Wiig, Oystein and Buckland, Stephen T. and Aars, Jon},
  title = {The use of global positioning systems to record distances in a helicopter line-transect survey},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {34},
  number = {3},
  pages = {759--763},
  url = {http://www.creem.st-and.ac.uk/tiago/webpages/pdfs/Marquesetal2006.pdf}
}
Marques, T. A. & Buckland, S. T. 2005 Transectos lineares em situações de não uniformidade das distâncias disponíveis para detecção Estatística Jubilar :445-454     PDF  
BibTeX:
@incollection{MarBuc05,
  author = {Marques, T. A. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Transectos lineares em situações de não uniformidade das distâncias disponíveis para detecção},
  booktitle = {Estatística Jubilar},
  publisher = {SPE},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {445-454}
}
Marques, T. A., Buckland, S. T., Bispo, R. & Howland, B. 2013 Accounting for animal density gradients using independent information in distance sampling surveys Statistical Methods and Applications 22:67-80   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2013,
  author = {Tiago A. Marques and Stephen T. Buckland and Regina Bispo and Brett Howland},
  title = {Accounting for animal density gradients using independent information in distance sampling surveys},
  journal = {Statistical Methods and Applications},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {67-80},
  doi = {10.1007/s10260-012-0223-2}
}
Marques, T. A., Buckland, S. T., Borchers, D. L., Tosh, D. & McDonald, R. A. 2010 Point Transect Sampling Along Linear Features Biometrics 66:1247--1255   DOI   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2010,
  author = {T. A. Marques and S. T. Buckland and D. L. Borchers and D. Tosh and R. A. McDonald},
  title = {Point Transect Sampling Along Linear Features},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {1247--1255},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01381.x}
}
Marques, T. A., Thomas, L., Fancy, S. G. & Buckland, S. T. 2007 Improving estimates of bird density using multiple covariate distance sampling The Auk 124:1229--1243   DOI   PDF  
Review: Tenho tambem o ficheiro Marquesetal2007.pdf que é sem ser formatado.
BibTeX:
@article{Maretal07,
  author = {Marques, T. A. and L. Thomas and S. G. Fancy and S. T. Buckland},
  title = {Improving estimates of bird density using multiple covariate distance sampling},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {124},
  pages = {1229--1243},
  doi = {10.1642/0004-8038(2007)124[1229:IEOBDU]2.0.CO;2}
}
Marques, T. A., Thomas, L., Martin, S. W., Mellinger, D. K., Ward, J. A., Moretti, D. J., Harris, D. & Tyack, P. L. 2013 Estimating animal population density using passive acoustics Biological Reviews 88:287--309   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2013b,
  author = {Tiago A. Marques and Len Thomas and Stephen W. Martin and David K. Mellinger and Jessica A. Ward and David J. Moretti and Danielle Harris and Peter L. Tyack},
  title = {Estimating animal population density using passive acoustics},
  journal = {Biological Reviews},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {287--309},
  doi = {10.1111/brv.12001}
}
Marques, T. A., Thomas, L., Ward, J., DiMarzio, N. & Tyack, P. L. 2009 Estimating cetacean population density using fixed passive acoustic sensors: an example with Blainville's beaked whales The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125:1982--1994     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2009,
  author = {Tiago A. Marques and Len Thomas and Jessica Ward and Nancy DiMarzio and Peter L. Tyack},
  title = {Estimating cetacean population density using fixed passive acoustic sensors: an example with {B}lainville's beaked whales},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {125},
  pages = {1982--1994}
}
Marsden, S., Symes, C. & Mack, A. 2006 The response of a New Guinean avifauna to conversion of forest to small-scale agriculture Ibis 148:629--640      
Abstract: In comparison with other tropical forest land uses such as selective logging, little is known of the impacts on wildlife of the many forms of small-scale agriculture practised across the tropics. We present density estimates, derived using a point count distance sampling method, for 31 bird species in primary forest, old abandoned gardens and active/recently abandoned gardens at two altitudes in the Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area (CMWMA), Papua New Guinea. There were clear habitat differences between the six habitat/altitude categories, with, for example, clines in tree sizes and canopy cover from highest values in primary forest to lowest values in current gardens. At lower altitudes, primary forest held highest densities of most species, whereas at higher altitudes, old abandoned gardens had greater densities of many birds, especially insectivores. canoco was used to ordinate bird species with respect to major habitat gradient axes. Major axes were associated with differences in bird responses to forest conversion as well as altitudinal differences in species composition. Most important was that several insectivores (especially monarchs, fantails, etc.) formed a cluster of species associated with intact, high-biomass forest. We suggest that most species reacted moderately to habitat changes currently occurring, and this may be due in part to the fact that only a small proportion of the landscape at CMWMA has been converted to agriculture (around 13% may be current or recently abandoned gardens). There were, however, species with comparatively low densities in agricultural habitats and these included several insectivores, the terrestrial Blue Jewel-babbler Ptilorrhoa caerulescens, and three out of four birds of paradise. © 2006 The Authors.
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2006,
  author = {Marsden, S.J. and Symes, C.T. and Mack, A.L.},
  title = {The response of a New Guinean avifauna to conversion of forest to small-scale agriculture},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {148},
  number = {4},
  pages = {629--640}
}
Marsden, S., Whiffin, M., Sadgrove, L. & Jr, P. R. G. 2004 Bird community composition and species abundance on two inshore islands in the Atlantic forest region of Brazil Ararajuba 11:181--187      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2004,
  author = {Stuart Marsden and Mark Whiffin and Lisa Sadgrove and Paulo R. Guimarães Jr},
  title = {Bird community composition and species abundance on two inshore islands {in the Atlantic forest region of Brazil}},
  journal = {Ararajuba},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {181--187}
}
Marsden, S. J. 1999 Estimation of parrot and hornbill densities using a point count distance sampling method Ibis 141:377--390      
Abstract: The suitability of point count distance methods for estimating densities of tropical parrots and hornbills was assessed during surveys in Indonesia. The methods will perform well, so long as the following are considered. (1) Enough bird records must be accumulated to model species' detection curves precisely. For some species, around 2000 point counts may be needed and, in very rare species, the method may not be appropriate. Pooling data across habitats, species or years may increase precision in cases of small sample size. (2) Point counts are likely to be less biased than line transects because bird detection rates close to the recorder may be higher and there may be less chance of double-counting birds. Distances greater than 400 m between census points are unnecessary. (3) Count periods lasting ten minutes may be needed to ensure that most birds close to the recorder are detected. Controlled flushing of concealed birds after the main count period may also be appropriate. (4) The best time of day for census is the period when bird detectability is high but bird mobility low. For many large avian frugivores, this corresponds to the period between one hour after dawn and 10.30 h. (5) Records of flying birds must be excluded from density calculations. In the species studied, between 2% and 20% should be added to density estimates to compensate for the exclusion of flying birds.
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden1999,
  author = {Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Estimation of parrot and hornbill densities using a point count distance sampling method},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {141},
  number = {3},
  pages = {377--390}
}
Marsden, S. J. 1998 Changes in bird abundance following selective logging on Seram, Indonesia Conservation Biology 12:605--611      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden1998,
  author = {Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Changes in bird abundance following selective logging on {Seram, Indonesia}},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {605--611}
}
Marsden, S. J., Jones, M. J., Linsley, M. D., Mead, C. & Hounsome, M. V. 1997 The conservation status of the restricted-range lowland birds of Buru, Indonesia Bird Conservation International 7:213--233      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden1997,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Jones, M. J. and Linsley, M. D. and Mead, C. and Hounsome, M. V.},
  title = {The conservation status of the restricted-range lowland birds of {Buru, Indonesia}},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {213--233}
}
Marsden, S. J. & Pilgrim, J. D. 2003 Factors influencing the abundance of parrots and hornbills in pristine and disturbed forests on New Britain, PNG Ibis 145:45--53      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2003,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Pilgrim, J. D.},
  title = {Factors influencing the abundance of parrots and hornbills in pristine and disturbed forests on {New Britain, PNG}},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {145},
  pages = {45--53}
}
Marsden, S. J., Pilgrim, J. D. & Wilkinson, R. 2001 Status, abundance and habitat use of Blue-eyed Cockatoo Cacatua ophthalmica on New Britain, PNG Bird Conservation International 11:151--160      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2001a,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Pilgrim, J. D. and Wilkinson, R.},
  title = {Status, abundance and habitat use of Blue-eyed Cockatoo \textit{Cacatua ophthalmica} on New Britain, PNG},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {151--160}
}
Marsden, S. J. & Symes, C. T. 2006 Abundance and habitat associations of parrots from a hillforest, Papua New Guinea Pacific Conservation Biology 12:15--21      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2006a,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Symes, C. T.},
  title = {Abundance and habitat associations of parrots from a hillforest, {Papua New Guinea}},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {15--21}
}
Marsden, S. J. & Whiffin, M. 2003 The relationship between population density, habitat position and habitat breadth within a neotropical forest bird community Ecography 26:385--392      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2003a,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Whiffin, M.},
  title = {The relationship between population density, habitat position and habitat breadth within a neotropical forest bird community},
  journal = {Ecography},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {385--392}
}
Marsden, S. J., Whiffin, M. & Galetti, M. 2001 Bird diversity and abundance in forest fragments and Eucalyptus plantations around a Brazilian Atlantic forest reserve Biodiversity & Conservation 10:737--751      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2001,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Whiffin, M. and Galetti, M.},
  title = {Bird diversity and abundance in forest fragments and {Eucalyptus plantations around a Brazilian Atlantic} forest reserve},
  journal = {Biodiversity \& Conservation},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {737--751}
}
Marsden, S. J., Whiffin, M., Galetti, M. & Fielding, A. H. 2005 How well will Brazil’s system of Atlantic Forest reserves maintain viable bird populations? Biodiversity and Conservation 14:2835--2853      
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2005a,
  author = {Stuart J. Marsden and Mark Whiffin and Mauro Galetti and Alan H. Fielding},
  title = {How well will {Brazil’s system of Atlantic Forest} reserves maintain viable bird populations?},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {2835--2853}
}
Marsden, S. J., Whiffin, M., Sadgrove, L. & Guimarães Jr, P. 2000 Parrot populations and habitat use in and around two Brazilian Atlantic forest reserves Biological Conservation 96:209--217     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Marsden2000,
  author = {Marsden, S. J. and Whiffin, M. and Sadgrove, L. and Guimarães Jr, P.},
  title = {Parrot populations and habitat use in and around two {Brazilian Atlantic forest reserves}},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {209--217}
}
Marsh, D. M. & Beckman, N. G. 2004 Effects of forest roads on the abundance and activity of terrestrial salamanders Ecological Applications 14:1882--1891      
BibTeX:
@article{MarBec04,
  author = {David M. Marsh and Noelle G. Beckman},
  title = {Effects of forest roads on the abundance and activity of terrestrial salamanders},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1882--1891}
}
Marsh, H. & Sinclair, D. F. 1989 Correcting for visibility bias in strip transect aerial surveys of aquatic fauna Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1017--1024      
BibTeX:
@article{MarSin89,
  author = {Marsh, H. and Sinclair, D. F.},
  title = {Correcting for visibility bias in strip transect aerial surveys of aquatic fauna},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {1017--1024}
}
Marshall, A. R., Lovett, J. C. & White, P. C. 2008 Selection of line-transect methods for estimating the density of group-living animals: lessons from the primates American Journal of Primatology 70:452--462      
BibTeX:
@article{Marshall2008a,
  author = {Andrew R. Marshall and Jon C. Lovett and Piran C.L. White},
  title = {Selection of line-transect methods for estimating the density of group-living animals: lessons from the primates},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {452--462}
}
Martínez-Morales, M. A. 1999 Conservation status and habitat preferences of the Cozumel Curassow Condor 101:14--20     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Martinez-Morales1999,
  author = {Mart{\'i}nez-Morales, M. A.},
  title = {Conservation status and habitat preferences of the Cozumel Curassow},
  journal = {Condor},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {101},
  number = {1},
  pages = {14--20}
}
Martins, H., Barbosa, H., Hodgson, M., Borralho, R. & Rego, F. 2003 Effect of vegetation type and environmental factors on European wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus counts in a southern Portuguese montado Acta Theriologica 48:385--398      
Abstract: This study assesses the effect of vegetation and variables related to weather and light conditions on the efficacy of rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) counts carried out in the south of Portugal. Counts were carried out in two years using driven line transects, and correlated with vegetation type and the variables using generalised linear models. The offset was a surveyed area estimated using Distance Sampling Theory as a means of correcting for detectability bias. More rabbits were observed in dense vegetation during day-time counts and in crops during night-time counts, In 1998, day-time counts were higher with higher average daily temperatures, whilst the night-time counts were higher with higher minimum daily temperatures. In 1999, day-time counts decreased with the amount of rainfall in the previous month, and the night-time counts decreased with the accumulated rainfall in the previous two months and with the higher wind speeds. In order to increase efficacy, counts should be carried out either at dawn or at dusk during the post-breeding season, and with greater intensity in dense scrub or open vegetation with high tree cover. During the breeding season and winter, counts should be carried out after dusk and with greater intensity in arable crops.
BibTeX:
@article{Martins2003,
  author = {Martins, H. and Barbosa, H. and Hodgson, M. and Borralho, R. and Rego, F.},
  title = {Effect of vegetation type and environmental factors on European wild rabbit \textit{Oryctolagus cuniculus} counts in a southern Portuguese montado},
  journal = {Acta Theriologica},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {48},
  number = {3},
  pages = {385--398}
}
Mateos, M. & Arroyo, G. 2011 Ocean surface winds drive local-scale movements within long-distance migrations of seabirds Marine Biology 158:329-339   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Mateos2011,
  author = {Mateos, María and Arroyo, GonzaloM.},
  title = {Ocean surface winds drive local-scale movements within long-distance migrations of seabirds},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {158},
  number = {2},
  pages = {329-339},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-010-1561-y},
  doi = {10.1007/s00227-010-1561-y}
}
Mateos, M., Arroyo, G. M., Rodríguez, A., Cuenca, D. & De La Cruz, A. 2010 Calibration of visually estimated distances to migrating seabirds with radar measurements Journal of Field Ornithology 81:302--309   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{JOFO:JOFO286,
  author = {Mateos, María and Arroyo, Gonzalo M. and Rodríguez, Alejandro and Cuenca, David and De La Cruz, Andrés},
  title = {Calibration of visually estimated distances to migrating seabirds with radar measurements},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {302--309},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1557-9263.2010.00286.x}
}
Matsuoka, S. M. & Johnson, J. A. 2008 Using A Multimodel Approach to Estimate the Population Size of Mckay's Buntings The Condor 110:371--376      
BibTeX:
@article{Matsuoka2008,
  author = {S. M. Matsuoka and J. A. Johnson},
  title = {Using A Multimodel Approach to Estimate the Population Size of Mckay's Buntings},
  journal = {The Condor},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {110},
  number = {2},
  pages = {371--376}
}
Mattice, J. A., Brauning, D. W. & Diefenbach, D. R. 2005 Abundance of Grassland Sparrows on Reclaimed Surface Mines in Western Pennsylvania  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Mattice2005,
  author = {Jennifer A. Mattice and Daniel W. Brauning and Duane R. Diefenbach},
  title = {Abundance of Grassland Sparrows on Reclaimed Surface Mines in Western Pennsylvania},
  year = {2005},
  number = {PSW-GTR-191}
}
Mattson, D. J. & Reinhart, D. P. 1996 Indicators of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) abundance in the whitebark pine zone Great Basin Naturalist 56:272--275      
BibTeX:
@article{MatRei96,
  author = {Mattson, D. J. and Reinhart, D. P.},
  title = {Indicators of red squirrel (\emph{Tamiasciurus hudsonicus}) abundance in the whitebark pine zone},
  journal = {Great Basin Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {272--275}
}
Mayfield, H. F. 1981 Problems in estimating population size through counts of singing males Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :220--224      
BibTeX:
@incollection{May81,
  author = {Mayfield, H. F.},
  title = {Problems in estimating population size through counts of singing males},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {220--224}
}
Mazerolle, M. J., Bailey, L. L., Kendall, W. L., Royle, J. A., Converse, S. J. & Nichols, J. D. 2007 Making great leaps forward: accounting for detectability in herpetological field studies Journal of Herpetology 41:672--689     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Mazerolle2007,
  author = {Marc J. Mazerolle and Larissa L. Bailey and William L. Kendall and J. Andrew Royle and Sarah J. Converse and James D. Nichols},
  title = {Making great leaps forward: accounting for detectability in herpetological field studies},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {672--689}
}
McCallum, D. 2005 A Conceptual Guide to Detection Probability for Point Counts and Other Count-based Survey Methods  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{McCallum,
  author = {McCallum, D.A.},
  title = {A Conceptual Guide to Detection Probability for Point Counts and Other Count-based Survey Methods},
  year = {2005},
  number = {PSW-GTR-191}
}
McClanahan, T. R. 1986 Quick population survey method using faecal droppings and a steady state assumption African Journal of Ecology 24:37--39      
BibTeX:
@article{Mcc86,
  author = {McClanahan, T. R.},
  title = {Quick population survey method using faecal droppings and a steady state assumption},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {37--39}
}
McConville, A. J., Grachev, I. A., Keane, A., Coulson, T., Bekenov, A. B. & Milner-Gulland, E. J. 2009 Reconstructing the observation process to correct for changing detection probability of a critically endangered species Endangered Species Research 6:231--237   URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{McConville2009,
  author = {McConville, A. J. and Grachev, I. A. and Keane, A. and Coulson, T. and Bekenov, A. B. and Milner-Gulland, E. J.},
  title = {Reconstructing the observation process to correct for changing detection probability of a critically endangered species},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {6},
  number = {3},
  pages = {231--237},
  url = {http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v6/n3/p231-237/}
}
McDonald, L. L. 1980 Line-intercept sampling for attributes other than coverage and density Journal of Wildlife Management 44:530--533      
BibTeX:
@article{Mcd80,
  author = {McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Line-intercept sampling for attributes other than coverage and density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {530--533}
}
McDonald, L. L., Garner, G. W. & Robertson, D. G. 1999 Comparison of aerial survey procedures for estimating polar bear density: results of pilot studies in Northern Alaska Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods :37--51      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Mcdetal99,
  author = {McDonald, L. L. and Garner, G. W. and Robertson, D. G.},
  title = {Comparison of aerial survey procedures for estimating polar bear density: results of pilot studies in {N}orthern {A}laska},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {37--51}
}
McIntyre, G. A. 1953 Estimation of plant density using line transects Journal of Ecology 41:319--330      
BibTeX:
@article{Mci53,
  author = {McIntyre, G. A.},
  title = {Estimation of plant density using line transects},
  journal = {Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1953},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {319--330}
}
McIntyre, N. E. 1998 Abundance and habitat affinities of Cyclotrachelus substriatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on northern shortgrass prairie Prairie Naturalist 30:157--168     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{McIntyre1998,
  author = {McIntyre, N E},
  title = {Abundance and habitat affinities of \textit{Cyclotrachelus substriatus} (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on northern shortgrass prairie},
  journal = {Prairie Naturalist},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {157--168}
}
McIntyre, N. E. 1995 Methamidophos application effects on Pasimachus elongatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae): an update Environmental Entomology 24:559--563     PDF  
Abstract: Population densities of the predatory ground beetle, P. elongatus, were examined at the Central Plains Experimental Range, Colorado. Using distance sampling theory, density estimates dating from before an application of the insecticide methamidophos (1988) and three beetle generations afterward (1994) were analyzed. Higher population densities were found in shrub dominated than in grass dominated sites, regardless of past methamidophos exposure. The P. elongatus density patterns seen are discussed in relation to possible long-term disruption of the arthropod prey community by metyhamidophos and in relation to competitive release and physiological resistance. -from Author
BibTeX:
@article{McIntyre1995,
  author = {McIntyre, N. E.},
  title = {Methamidophos application effects on \textit{Pasimachus elongatus} (Coleoptera: Carabidae): an update},
  journal = {Environmental Entomology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {24},
  number = {3},
  pages = {559--563}
}
McLuckie, A. M., H. D. L., Marr, J. W. & Fridell, R. A. 2002 Regional desert tortoise monitoring in the upper Virgin River recovery unit, Washington County, Utah Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:380--386      
BibTeX:
@article{Mcl02,
  author = {McLuckie, A. M., Harstad, D. L and Marr, J. W. and Fridell, R. A.},
  title = {Regional desert tortoise monitoring in the upper {V}irgin {R}iver recovery unit, {W}ashington {C}ounty, {U}tah},
  journal = {Chelonian Conservation and Biology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {380--386}
}
McNair, D. & Lombard, C. 2004 Population estimates, habitat associations, and management of Ameiva polops (Cope) at Green Cay, United States Virgin Islands Caribbean Journal of Science 40:353--361      
Abstract: The endemic St. Croix Ground Lizard (Ameiva polops), listed in 1977 by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service as an endangered species, has not been surveyed since the mid-1990s on Green Cay (5.7 ha), an islet just off the northeastern coast of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. We conducted six surveys here within three divisions (north, south, beach) along 32 randomly selected fixed-width plots (25 × 4 m) from August to October 2002. The total weighted mean population estimate, using a conservative procedure, was 183 lizards. The number of lizards was positively associated with a greater number of shrub stems. Lizards were more abundant in forested areas in the southern half of the cay (81% of the weighted total), but scarcer than expected on beaches (< 0.05% of the total), especially treeless areas. Since our recent population estimate suggests a decline in the long-term (ca. 35 yr) population of Ameiva polops on Green Cay, mark-resight, recapture surveys, or distance sampling (adjusted for the proportion of animals that are unobserved) are required to obtain population estimates and to assess hurricane effects (since Hugo in 1989) on habitat structure and composition. Copyright 2004 College of Arts and Sciences.
BibTeX:
@article{McNair2004,
  author = {McNair, D.B. and Lombard, C.D.},
  title = {Population estimates, habitat associations, and management of \textit{Ameiva polops} (Cope) at Green Cay, United States Virgin Islands},
  journal = {Caribbean Journal of Science},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {40},
  number = {3},
  pages = {353--361}
}
McShea, W. & Rappole, J. 1997 Variable song rates in three species of passerines and implications for estimating bird populations Journal of Field Ornithology 68:367--375      
Review: This paper presents evidence that some birds might have different singuing rates by habitat, but also density dependent as well as dependent on distance from the observer. This has clear implications for survey methods.
BibTeX:
@article{McSRap97,
  author = {McShea, WJ and Rappole, JH},
  title = {Variable song rates in three species of passerines and implications for estimating bird populations},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {68},
  number = {3},
  pages = {367--375}
}
McShea, W. J., Stewart, C. M., Kearns, L. & Bates, S. 2011 Road bias for deer density estimates at 2 national parks in Maryland Wildlife Society Bulletin 35:177--184   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{WSB:WSB53,
  author = {McShea, William J. and Stewart, Chad M. and Kearns, Laura and Bates, Scott},
  title = {Road bias for deer density estimates at 2 national parks in {Maryland}},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {35},
  number = {3},
  pages = {177--184},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wsb.53},
  doi = {10.1002/wsb.53}
}
Meier, S., Yazvenko, S., Blokhin, S., Wainwright, P., Maminov, M., Yakovlev, Y. & Newcomer, M. 2007 Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 134:107--136   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Meier2007,
  author = {Meier, S. and Yazvenko, S. and Blokhin, S. and Wainwright, P. and Maminov, M. and Yakovlev, Y. and Newcomer, M.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003},
  journal = {Environmental Monitoring and Assessment},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {134},
  pages = {107--136},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9811-2}
}
Mellinger, D. K., Stafford, K. M., Moore, S. E., Dziak, R. P. & Matsumoto, H. 2007 An overview of fixed passive acoustic observation methods for cetaceans Oceanography 20:36-45     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Mellinger2007a,
  author = {D. K. Mellinger and K. M. Stafford and S. E. Moore and R. P. Dziak and H. Matsumoto},
  title = {An overview of fixed passive acoustic observation methods for cetaceans},
  journal = {Oceanography},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {36-45}
}
Melville, G. J. & Welsh, A. H. 2001 Line transect sampling in small regions Biometrics 57:1130--1137      
Abstract: This article develops an approach to estimating population abundance from line transect surveys that uses a calibration survey to estimate the detection function, which is then employed as a weight function in constructing the abundance estimate. Nonparametric methods of estimating the detection function via local regression and via a kernel density estimator are considered. The proposed methods are evaluated using a set of Western Australian plant data and weed enumeration data.
BibTeX:
@article{Melville2001,
  author = {Melville, G. J. and Welsh, A. H.},
  title = {Line transect sampling in small regions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1130--1137}
}
Mercey, K. A. & Jayaraman, K. 1999 Predicting the variation in detection function in line transect sampling through random parameter model Environmental and Ecological Statistics 6:341--350      
BibTeX:
@article{MerJar99,
  author = {Mercey, K. A. and Jayaraman, K.},
  title = {Predicting the variation in detection function in line transect sampling through random parameter model},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {341--350}
}
Meredith, M. 2006 Analysing orang utan nest data with DISTANCE  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Meredith2006,
  author = {Meredith, M},
  title = {Analysing orang utan nest data with DISTANCE},
  year = {2006},
  note = {An interesting tutorial}
}
Meriggi, A. & Verri, A. 1990 Population dynamics and habitat selection of the European hare on poplar monocultures in northern Italy Acta Theriologica 35:69--76      
BibTeX:
@article{MerVer90,
  author = {Meriggi, A. and Verri, A.},
  title = {Population dynamics and habitat selection of the European hare on poplar monocultures in northern {I}taly},
  journal = {Acta Theriologica},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {69--76}
}
Meyler, S. V., Salmona, J., Ibouroi, M. T., Besolo, A., Rasolondraibe, E., Radespiel, U., Rabarivola, C. & Chikhi, L. 2012 Density estimates of two endangered nocturnal lemur species from northern madagascar: new results and a comparison of commonly used methods American Journal of Primatology :   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Meyler2012,
  author = {Samuel Viana Meyler and Jordi Salmona and Mohamed Thani Ibouroi and Aubin Besolo and Emmanuel Rasolondraibe and Ute Radespiel and Clément Rabarivola and Lounes Chikhi},
  title = {Density estimates of two endangered nocturnal lemur species from northern madagascar: new results and a comparison of commonly used methods},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2012},
  doi = {10.1002/ajp.21997}
}
Miller, D. L., Burt, M. L., Rexstad, E. A. & Thomas, L. 2013 Spatial models for distance sampling data: recent developments and future directions Methods in Ecology and Evolution :   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{MEE3:MEE312105,
  author = {Miller, David L. and Burt, M. Louise and Rexstad, Eric A. and Thomas, Len},
  title = {Spatial models for distance sampling data: recent developments and future directions},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12105},
  doi = {10.1111/2041-210X.12105}
}
Miller, S. G., Knight, R. L. & Miller, C. K. 1998 Influence of recreational trails on breeding birds communities Ecological Applications 8:162--169      
BibTeX:
@article{Miletal98,
  author = {Miller, S. G. and Knight, R. L. and Miller, C. K.},
  title = {Influence of recreational trails on breeding birds communities},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {162--169}
}
Mobley, J., Spitz, S. & Grotefendt, R. 2001 Abundance of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: results of 1993-2000 aerial surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Mobley2001,
  author = {Mobley, J. and Spitz, S. and Grotefendt, R.},
  title = {Abundance of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: results of 1993-2000 aerial surveys},
  year = {2001}
}
Mobley Jr., J. R., Spitz, S. S., Forney, K. A., Grotefendt, R. & Forestell, P. H. 2000 Distribution and abundance of odontocete species in Hawaiian waters: preliminary results of 1993-98 aerial surveys  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Mobley2000,
  author = {Mobley Jr., J. R. and Scott S. Spitz and Karin A. Forney and Richard Grotefendt and Paul H. Forestell},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of odontocete species in {H}awaiian waters: preliminary results of 1993-98 aerial surveys},
  year = {2000},
  number = {LJ-00-14C}
}
Mohamed, Z., I., A. M. & S., S. A. 2003 Population size of red junglefowl (Gallus Gallus Spadiceus) in agriculture areas Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 46:52--57      
Abstract: A two-year study was conducted on the population size of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in five agricultural areas in the state of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. In the first year (from August 1995 to July 1996) the study was conducted in three habitats viz. rubber plantation, 22-year old oil palm plantation and orchard area at Universitiy Putra, Malaysia. In the second year (from August 1996 to July 1997) two additional habitats viz. 4 and 8 years old oil palm plantation at Sungai, Sedu Estate were selected. Red Junglefowl density was estimated by Distance Sampling Method. Habitat condition was also assessed to determine factors that affected the population size. The densities in 4 years, 8 years and 22 years old oil palm, rubber plantations and orchard were 84.22 km-2, 27.80 km-2, 21.43 km-2, 15.66 km-2 and 6.06 km-2 respectively. The average group size was two birds per group. The largest group comprised of 10 birds was observed in an 8 years old palm oil plantation. The height of the canopy cover was found to have a significant effect on the density of Red Junglefowl. Low canopy cover provides the Red Junglefowl protection against predators and suitable roosting sites.
BibTeX:
@article{Zakaria2003,
  author = {ZAKARIA Mohamed and ARSHAD Muhammad I. and SAJAP Ahmad S.},
  title = {Population size of red junglefowl (\textit{Gallus Gallus Spadiceus}) in agriculture areas},
  journal = {Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {52--57}
}
Monteiro, J. & Alpizar-Jara, R. 2006 Estimação bayesiana de g0 em amostragem por distâncias Cência Estatística :501-510     PDF  
BibTeX:
@incollection{MonAlp06,
  author = {Monteiro, J. and Alpizar-Jara, R.},
  title = {Estima\c{c}{\~a}o bayesiana de g0 em amostragem por dist{\^a}ncias},
  booktitle = {C{\^e}ncia Estat{\'i}stica},
  publisher = {SPE},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {501-510}
}
Monteiro, J. F. 2011 Modelo combinado captura-recaptura e transectos lineares: uma abordagem bayesiana  :      
Review: Entretanto, apercebi-me que elem do que esta escrito em AJM.pdf (tambem impresso como JB129), falhei porque (1) este método não dá para usar com amostragem por distancias tradicionais (ver tb uns comentarios de Jeff Laake ao paper alpizar e pollock 1999
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Monteiro2011,
  author = {João Filipe Monteiro},
  title = {Modelo combinado captura-recaptura e transectos lineares: uma abordagem bayesiana},
  school = {Universidade de Évora, Departamento de Matemática},
  year = {2011}
}
Moore, J. E. & Barlow, J. 2011 Bayesian state-space model of fin whale abundance trends from a 1991-2008 time series of line-transect surveys in the California Current Journal of Applied Ecology :   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Moore2011,
  author = {Moore, Jeffrey E. and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Bayesian state-space model of fin whale abundance trends from a 1991-2008 time series of line-transect surveys in the California Current},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02018.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02018.x}
}
Moore, J. E. & Barlow, J. P. 2013 Declining Abundance of Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiidae) in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem PLoS ONE 8:e52770   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Moore2013,
  author = {Moore, Jeffrey E. AND Barlow, Jay P.},
  title = {Declining Abundance of Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiidae) in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {e52770},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0052770},
  doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0052770}
}
Morelle, K., Bouché, P., Lehaire, F., Leeman, V. & Lejeune, P. 2012 Game species monitoring using road-based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers: a covariate analysis Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 35:253-265     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Morelle2012,
  author = {Morelle, K., and Bouch{\'e}, P. and Lehaire, F. and Leeman, V. and Lejeune, P.},
  title = {Game species monitoring using road-based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers: a covariate analysis},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {253-265}
}
Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Onononga, J. & Strindberg, S. 2006 Ape abundance and habitat use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo International Journal of Primatology 27:147--149      
Abstract: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations in central Africa are rapidly declining as a result of disease epidemics, commercial bushmeat hunting, and habitat destruction. Our main objective was to estimate the absolute abundance and habitat utilization of chimpanzees and gorillas in the intact forests of the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo, and in an adjacent area in which selective logging will take place in the near future. The estimates provide a unique baseline for apes inhabiting an undisturbed environment. A second objective was to compare estimates of abundance and patterns of habitat utilization generated by different techniques: 1) distance sampling of individual ape nests and nest sites along line transects, 2) direct observations of apes during reconnaissance surveys, and 3) observations of ape traces during reconnaissance surveys. We completed a total of 222 km of line transect surveys in 4 sampling areas, resulting in overall density estimates of 1.53 chimpanzees/km2 and 2.34 gorillas/km2 from nest sites. We generated a density estimate of 2.23 chimpanzees/km2 from direct observations during reconnaissance surveys of a semihabituated community in 1 of the 4 sampling areas. Habitat use profiles that nest surveys depicted on transects differed from those of direct observations and traces we encountered on reconnaissance surveys. We found the highest overall abundance of chimpanzee nests in monodominant Gilbertiodendron forest, whereas our direct observations showed that chimpanzees preferred mixed species forest. Transects that traversed the core area of the community range had the highest encounter rates of chimpanzee nests and nest sites. Gorilla nests on transects showed a preference only for mixed species forest with an open canopy, but direct observations and traces on reconnaissance surveys clearly indicated that gorillas use several habitat types. We conclude by evaluating the precision of these nest surveys and our ability to detect future trends in ape densities in the Goualougo Triangle. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
BibTeX:
@article{Morgan2006,
  author = {Morgan, D. and Sanz, C. and Onononga, J.R. and Strindberg, S.},
  title = {Ape abundance and habitat use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1},
  pages = {147--149}
}
Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Onononga, J. & Strindberg, S. 2006 Ape Abundance and Habitat Use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo International Journal of Primatology 27:147-179   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-005-9013-0,
  author = {Morgan, David and Sanz, Crickette and Onononga, Jean and Strindberg, Samantha},
  title = {Ape Abundance and Habitat Use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {147-179},
  note = {10.1007/s10764-005-9013-0},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-9013-0}
}
Morgan, D. G. 1986 Estimating Vertebrate Population Densities by Line Transect Methods  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{Mor86,
  author = {Morgan, D. G.},
  title = {Estimating Vertebrate Population Densities by Line Transect Methods},
  year = {1986}
}
Mori, M., Butterworth, D., Brand A., Rademeyer, R., Okamura, H. & Matsuda, H. 2003 Observer experience and Antarctic minke whale sighting ability in IWC/IDCR-SOWER surveys Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:1--11     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Mori2003,
  author = {Mori, M and Butterworth, DS and Brand\aeo, A and Rademeyer, RA and Okamura, H and Matsuda, H},
  title = {Observer experience and Antarctic minke whale sighting ability in IWC/IDCR-SOWER surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--11}
}
Morrison, M. L., Mannan, R. W. & Dorsey, G. L. 1981 Effects of number of circular plots on estimates of avian density and species richness Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :405--408      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Moretal81,
  author = {Morrison, M. L. and Mannan, R. W. and Dorsey, G. L.},
  title = {Effects of number of circular plots on estimates of avian density and species richness},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {405--408}
}
Morrison, M. L. & Marcot, B. G. 1984 Expanded use of the variable circular-plot census method Wilson Bulletin 96:313--315     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{MorMar84,
  author = {Morrison, M. L. and Marcot, B. G.},
  title = {Expanded use of the variable circular-plot census method},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {313--315}
}
Morrogh-Bernard, H., Husson, S., Page, S. & Rieley, J. 2003 Population status of the Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia Biological Conservation 110:141--152      
BibTeX:
@article{Morrogh-Bernard2003,
  author = {Morrogh-Bernard, H. and Husson, S. and Page, S.E. and Rieley, J.O.},
  title = {Population status of the Bornean orang-utan (\textit{Pongo pygmaeus}) in the Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {110},
  number = {1},
  pages = {141--152}
}
Moskat, C. & Baldi, A. 1999 The importance of edge effect in line transect censuses applied in marshland habitats Ornis Fennica 76:33--40      
BibTeX:
@article{MosBal99,
  author = {Moskat, C. and Baldi, A.},
  title = {The importance of edge effect in line transect censuses applied in marshland habitats},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {33--40}
}
Muchaal, P. K. & Ngandjui, G. 1999 Impact of village hunting on wildlife populations in the western Dia Reserve, Cameroon Conservation Biology 13:385--396      
BibTeX:
@article{MucNga99,
  author = {Muchaal, P. K. and Ngandjui, G.},
  title = {Impact of village hunting on wildlife populations in the western {D}ia {R}eserve, {C}ameroon},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {385--396}
}
Mugangu, T. E., Hunter, M. L. & Gilbert, J. R. 1995 Food, water, and predation: a study of habitat selection by buffalo in Virunga National Park, Zaire Mammalia 59:349--362      
BibTeX:
@article{Mugetal95,
  author = {Mugangu, T. E. and Hunter, M. L. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {Food, water, and predation: a study of habitat selection by buffalo in {V}irunga {N}ational {P}ark, {Z}aire},
  journal = {Mammalia},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {349--362}
}
Mullin, K. D. & Fulling, G. L. 2004 Abundance of cetaceans in the oceanic Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1996-2001 Marine Mammal Science 20:787--807     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Mullin2004,
  author = {Keith D. Mullin and Gregory L. Fulling},
  title = {Abundance of cetaceans in the oceanic {Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1996-2001}},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {787--807}
}
Mullin, K. D. & Fulling, G. L. 2003 Abundance of cetaceans in the southern U.S. North Atlantic Ocean during summer 1998 Fisheries Bulletin 101:603-613     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Mullin2003,
  author = {Keith D. Mullin and Gregory L. Fulling},
  title = {Abundance of cetaceans in the southern {U.S. North Atlantic Ocean} during summer 1998},
  journal = {Fisheries Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {603-613}
}
Myrberget, S. 1976 Field tests of line transect census methods for grouse Norwegian Journal of Zoology 24:307--317      
BibTeX:
@article{Myr76,
  author = {Myrberget, S.},
  title = {Field tests of line transect census methods for grouse},
  journal = {Norwegian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {307--317}
}
Naugle, R., Rutberg, A., Underwood, H., Turner Jr., J. & Liu, I. 2002 Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA. Reproduction (Cambridge, England) Supplement 60:143--153      
Abstract: Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.
BibTeX:
@article{Naugle2002,
  author = {Naugle, R.E. and Rutberg, A.T. and Underwood, H.B. and Turner Jr., J.W. and Liu, I.K.},
  title = {Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer \textit{(Odocoileus virginianus)} on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA.},
  journal = {Reproduction (Cambridge, England) Supplement},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {143--153}
}
Nchanji, A. C. & Plumptre, A. 2001 Seasonality in elephant dung decay and implications for censusing and population monitoring in south-western Cameroon African Journal of Ecology 39:24--32      
BibTeX:
@article{NchPlu01,
  author = {Nchanji, A. C. and Plumptre, A.},
  title = {Seasonality in elephant dung decay and implications for censusing and population monitoring in south-western {C}ameroon},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {24--32}
}
Nelson, J. & Fancy, S. 1999 A test of the variable circular-plot method where exact density of a bird population was known Pacific Conservation Biology 5:139--143     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nelson1999,
  author = {Nelson, JT and Fancy, SG},
  title = {A test of the variable circular-plot method where exact density of a bird population was known},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {139--143}
}
Nemitz, D. 2008 An assessment of sampling detectability for global biodiversity monitoring: results from sampling grids in different climatic regions  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Nemitz2008,
  author = {Dirk Nemitz},
  title = {An assessment of sampling detectability for global biodiversity monitoring: results from sampling grids in different climatic regions},
  school = {Faculty of Biology, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen},
  year = {2008}
}
Newey, S., Bell, M., Enthoven, S. & Thirgood, S. 2003 Can distance sampling and dung plots be used to assess the density of mountain hares Lepus timidus? Wildlife Biology 9:185--192     PDF  
Abstract: We evaluated distance sampling and dung plots as cost-effective methods of estimating the density of mountain hares Lepus timidus on moorland in the Scottish Highlands. We compared density estimates derived from these techniques to those derived from labour-intensive capture-recapture techniques. Distance sampling and capture-recapture techniques produced comparable density estimates at medium and low hare densities. Density estimates derived from distance sampling were higher than those derived from capture-recapture in high-density hare populations. Both distance sampling and capture-recapture techniques gave wide confidence intervals at high hare density. Histograms of perpendicular sighting distances showed that a large proportion of hares were seen on or close to the transect line and that there was a rapid fall off in detection rates with distance. This finding indicated that hare behaviour may lead to problematic survey design and may reduce the precision of density estimates. The collection of accurate distance sampling data was particularly problematic when hare density was high. In contrast, in low-density hare populations, considerable sampling effort was required to obtain sufficient sightings of hares to reliably estimate density. Dung plots provided a relative index of abundance that successfully ranked populations of mountain hares in order of increasing density as determined by distance sampling and capture-recapture techniques. With careful study design, distance sampling provides a good compromise between accuracy, precision and effort in estimating the density of mountain hares. The use of dung plots is a rapid alternative when only estimates of relative abundance are required.
BibTeX:
@article{Newey2003,
  author = {Newey, S. and Bell, M. and Enthoven, S. and Thirgood, S.},
  title = {Can distance sampling and dung plots be used to assess the density of mountain hares \textit{Lepus timidus}?},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  pages = {185--192}
}
Newson, S., Woodburn, R., Noble, D., Baillie, S. & Gregory, R. 2005 Evaluating the Breeding Bird Survey for producing national population size and density estimates Bird Study 52:42--54      
Abstract: Capsule: The BBS has potential for producing better estimates of habitat-specific densities and population sizes for many UK bird populations than those available previously. Aims: To examine the use of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) in providing unbiased national population and habitat-specific density estimates of British birds. Methods: Line transect data collected by volunteers in 1998 from 2287 1-km squares across the UK were analysed using distance sampling methods to calculate habitat-specific density and abundance estimates. For each species, the habitat-specific decline in detectability with distance from a transect line was modelled and applied at a regional level to incorporate variation in sampling intensity in different areas of the country. Results: National population and density estimates calculated here were at a magnitude expected for at least seven species in this study. However, national population size estimates were higher than expected for Starling Sturnus vulgaris, House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Blackbird Turdus merula, Greenfinch Carduelis chloris, Jackdaw Corvus monedula, Whitethroat Sylvia communis, Woodpigeon Columba palumbus and Linnet Carduelis cannabina and lower than expected for Skylark Alauda arvensis, Dunnock Prunella modularis, Song Thrush Turdus philomelos and Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra. These differences are likely to be related to differences in sampling design and survey methods. For example, Starling, House Sparrow, Blackbird, Jackdaw, Greenfinch and Wood Pigeon, which have considerable populations in urban areas, were undoubtedly underestimated by the Common Birds Census (CBC). The counts of species that flock during the breeding season, or are not strongly territorial (e.g. Linnet, Jackdaw and Wood Pigeon) could be biased if detectability is strongly related to flock size. National population estimates of Skylark and Corn Bunting are lower than those based on CBC, but higher, or similar, to targeted national surveys of these species. Possible reasons for the differences between these estimates are considered. Conclusions: This study highlights the strength of the BBS over previous data sources in producing national estimates of density and abundance at the habitat and national level. More research on the sex ratio and status of birds counted during surveys, and on the reliability of the detectability functions derived from distance sampling is needed to improve the interpretation of population estimates derived from BBS data. © 2005 British Trust for Ornithology.
BibTeX:
@article{Newson2005,
  author = {Newson, S.E. and Woodburn, R.J.W. and Noble, D.G. and Baillie, S.R. and Gregory, R.D.},
  title = {Evaluating the Breeding Bird Survey for producing national population size and density estimates},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {52},
  number = {1},
  pages = {42--54}
}
Newson, S. E., Evans, K. L., Noble, D. G. & Gaston, J. J. D. G. K. J. 2008 Use of distance sampling to improve estimates of national population sizes for common and widespread breeding birds in the UK Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1330--1338      
BibTeX:
@article{Newson2008,
  author = {Stuart E. Newson and Karl L. Evans and David G. Noble and Jeremy J. D. Greenwoodand Kevin J. Gaston},
  title = {Use of distance sampling to improve estimates of national population sizes for common and widespread breeding birds in the UK},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1330--1338}
}
Newton, P. 2011 Animal movement and population densities  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@thesis{Newton2011,
  author = {Pamela Newton},
  title = {Animal movement and population densities},
  school = {School of Mathematics and Statistics},
  year = {2011}
}
Nice, M. M. & Nice, L. B. 1921 The roadside census Wilson Bulletin 33:113--123      
BibTeX:
@article{NicNic21,
  author = {Nice, M. M. and Nice, L. B.},
  title = {The roadside census},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {1921},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {113--123}
}
Nichols, J., Thomas, L. & Conn, P. 2008 Inferences about landbird abundance from count data: recent advances and future directions EURING 2007 proceedingsModelling demographic processes in marked populations. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 3:203-238     PDF  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Nicetal08,
  author = {Nichols, J.D. and L. Thomas and P.B. Conn},
  title = {Inferences about landbird abundance from count data: recent advances and future directions},
  booktitle = {Modelling demographic processes in marked populations. Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  journal = {EURING 2007 proceedings},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {203-238}
}
Nichols, J. D., Hines, J. E., Sauer, J. R., Fallon, F. W., Fallon, J. E. & Heglund, P. J. 2000 A double-observer approach for estimating detection probability and abundance from point counts The Auk 117:393--408      
BibTeX:
@article{Nicetal00,
  author = {Nichols, J. D and Hines, J. E and Sauer, J. R and Fallon, F. W and Fallon, J. E. and Heglund, P. J.},
  title = {A double-observer approach for estimating detection probability and abundance from point counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {117},
  pages = {393--408}
}
Nichols, J. D., Tomlinson, R. E. & Waggerman, G. 1986 Estimating nest detection probabilities for white-winged dove nest transects in Tamaulipas, Mexico The Auk 103:825--828      
BibTeX:
@article{Nicetal86,
  author = {Nichols, J. D. and Tomlinson, R. E. and Waggerman, G.},
  title = {Estimating nest detection probabilities for white-winged dove nest transects in {T}amaulipas, {M}exico},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {103},
  pages = {825--828}
}
Nielson, R. & Stahl, M. B. 2008 Investigation of the Properties of an Aerial Line Transect Survey for Polar Bears in the Chukchi Sea Using Computer Simulation  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Nielson2008,
  author = {Ryan Nielson and Michelle Bourassa Stahl},
  title = {Investigation of the Properties of an Aerial Line Transect Survey for Polar Bears in the Chukchi Sea Using Computer Simulation},
  year = {2008}
}
Nielson, R. M., McDonald, L. L. & Kovach, S. D. 2006 Aerial line transect survey protocols and data analysis methods to monitor moose (Alces alces) abundance as applied on the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Nielson2006,
  author = {Nielson, R. M. and McDonald, L. L. and Kovach, S. D.},
  title = {Aerial line transect survey protocols and data analysis methods to monitor moose (Alces alces) abundance as applied on the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska},
  year = {2006}
}
Niemi, A. & Fernández, C. 2010 Bayesian spatial point process modeling of line transect data Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 15:327-345   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Niemi2010,
  author = {Aki Niemi and Carmen Fernández},
  title = {Bayesian spatial point process modeling of line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {327-345},
  doi = {10.1007/s13253-010-0024-8}
}
Nijman, V. & Menken, S. B. J. 2005 Assessment of census techniques for estimating density and biomass of gibbons (Primates: Hylobatidae) The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 53:169-179     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nijman,
  author = {Nijman, V. and Menken, S. B. J.},
  title = {Assessment of census techniques for estimating density and biomass of gibbons (Primates: Hylobatidae)},
  journal = {The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {169-179}
}
Nikolov, S. C. 2009 Effects of land abandonment and changing habitat structure on avian assemblages in upland pastures of Bulgaria Bird Conservation International 19:1--14   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Nikolov2009,
  author = {Stoyan C. Nikolov},
  title = {Effects of land abandonment and changing habitat structure on avian assemblages in upland pastures of {Bulgaria}},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {1--14},
  doi = {10.1017/S0959270909990244}
}
Nikolov, S. C. 2007 Study on the habitat selection by birds in mature and over-mature Macedonian pine Pinus peuce forests in the Pirin National park, Bulgaria Acrocephalus 28:97--106     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nikolov07,
  author = {Nikolov, S. C.},
  title = {Study on the habitat selection by birds in mature and over-mature {Macedonian pine \textit{Pinus peuce} forests in the Pirin National park, Bulgaria}},
  journal = {Acrocephalus},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {97--106}
}
Nikolov, S. C. 2007 Density and community structure of breeding birds in Macedonian pine Pinus peuce forests in Bulgaria Avocetta 31:53--60     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nikolov07b,
  author = {Nikolov, S. C.},
  title = {Density and community structure of breeding birds in {Macedonian pine \textit{Pinus peuce} forests in Bulgaria}},
  journal = {Avocetta},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {53--60}
}
Nikolov, S. C. & Spasov, S. 2005 Frequency, density and numbers of some breeding birds in the south part of Kresna Gorge (SW Bulgaria) Acrocephalus 26:23--31     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nikolov05,
  author = {Nikolov, S. C. and Spasov, S.},
  title = {Frequency, density and numbers of some breeding birds in the south part of {Kresna Gorge (SW Bulgaria)}},
  journal = {Acrocephalus},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {23--31}
}
Nikolov, S. C., Spasov, S. & Kambourova, N. 2006 Density, number and habitat use of Common Buzzard Buteo buteo wintering in the lowlands of Bulgaria Buteo 15:39--47     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nikolov06,
  author = {Nikolov, S. C. and Spasov, S. and Kambourova, N.},
  title = {Density, number and habitat use of {Common Buzzard \textit{Buteo buteo} wintering in the lowlands of Bulgaria}},
  journal = {Buteo},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {39--47}
}
Noke Durden, W., Stolen, E. & Stolen, M. 2011 Abundance, Distribution, and Group Composition of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Aquatic Mammals 37:175--186   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{NokeDurden2011,
  author = {Noke Durden, W. and Stolen, E.D. and Stolen, M.K.},
  title = {Abundance, Distribution, and Group Composition of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins (\textit{Tursiops truncatus})},
  journal = {Aquatic Mammals},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {175--186},
  doi = {10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.175}
}
Norris, D., Rocha-Mendes, F., Marques, R., de Almeida Nobre, R. & Galetti, M. 2011 Density and Spatial Distribution of Buffy-tufted-ear Marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in a Continuous Atlantic Forest International Journal of Primatology :1-19   URL    
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-011-9503-1,
  author = {Norris, Darren and Rocha-Mendes, Fabiana and Marques, Renato and de Almeida Nobre, Rodrigo and Galetti, Mauro},
  title = {Density and Spatial Distribution of Buffy-tufted-ear Marmosets (\textit{Callithrix aurita}) in a Continuous Atlantic Forest},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1-19},
  note = {10.1007/s10764-011-9503-1},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-011-9503-1}
}
Norvell, R. E., Howe, F. P. & Parrish, J. R. 2003 A seven-year comparison of relative-abundance and distance-sampling methods The Auk 120:1013--1028      
BibTeX:
@article{Nor2003,
  author = {Norvell, R. E. and Howe, F. P. and Parrish, J. R.},
  title = {A seven-year comparison of relative-abundance and distance-sampling methods},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {1013--1028}
}
Nussear, K. E. & Tracy, C. R. 2007 Can modeling improve estimation of desert tortoise population densities? Ecological Applications 17:579--586     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Nussear2007,
  author = {Nussear, K E and Tracy, C R},
  title = {Can modeling improve estimation of desert tortoise population densities?},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {579--586}
}
O'Connell, V., Carlile, D. & Wakefield, W. 1998 Using line transects and habitat-based assessment techniques to estimate the density of yelloweye rockfish (Scorpaenidae: Sebastes) in the eastern Gulf of Alaska  :      
BibTeX:
@techreport{O’Connell1998,
  author = {O'Connell, V.M. and D.W. Carlile and W.W. Wakefield},
  title = {Using line transects and habitat-based assessment techniques to estimate the density of yelloweye rockfish (Scorpaenidae: Sebastes) in the eastern Gulf of Alaska},
  year = {1998},
  number = {CM1998/O:56}
}
O'Connell, V. M. & Carlile, D. W. 1993 Habitat-specific density of adult yelloweye rockfish Sebastes ruberrimus in the eastern Gulf of Alaska Fishery Bulletin 91:304--309      
BibTeX:
@article{OcoCar93,
  author = {O'Connell, V. M. and Carlile, D. W.},
  title = {Habitat-specific density of adult yelloweye rockfish {\em {S}ebastes ruberrimus} in the eastern {G}ulf of {A}laska},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {91},
  pages = {304--309}
}
O'Meara, T. E. 1981 A field test of two density estimators for transect data Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds :193--196      
BibTeX:
@incollection{Ome81,
  author = {O'Meara, T. E.},
  title = {A field test of two density estimators for transect data},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {193--196}
}
Oedekoven, C. S. 2013 Mixed effect models in distance sampling  :      
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{OedekovenPhD,
  author = {Oedekoven, Cornelia S.},
  title = {Mixed effect models in distance sampling},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2013}
}
Oedekoven, C. S., Buckland, S. T., Mackenzie, M. L., Evans, K. O. & Burger, L. W. 2013 Improving distance sampling: accounting for covariates and non-independency between sampled sites Journal of Applied Ecology 50:786-793   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{Oedekoven2013,
  author = {Oedekoven, Cornelia S. and Buckland, Stephen T. and Mackenzie, Monique L. and Evans, Kristine O. and Burger, Loren W.},
  title = {Improving distance sampling: accounting for covariates and non-independency between sampled sites},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {786-793},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12065},
  doi = {10.1111/1365-2664.12065}
}
Oedekoven, C. S., Buckland, S. T., Mackenzie, M. L., King, R., Evans, K. O. & Burger, L. W. 2014 Bayesian methods for hierarchical distance sampling Models Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics --:--   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Oedekoven2014,
  author = {Oedekoven, Cornelia S. and Buckland, Stephen T. and Mackenzie, Monique L. and King, Ruth and Evans, Kristine O. and Burger, Loren W.},
  title = {Bayesian methods for hierarchical distance sampling Models},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {--},
  pages = {--},
  note = {in print},
  doi = {10.1007/s13253-014-0167-0}
}
Ogutu, J., Bhola, N., Piepho, H.-P. & Reid, R. 2006 Efficiency of strip- and line-transect surveys of African savanna mammals Journal of Zoology 269:149--160     PDF  
Abstract: Effective management and conservation of wildlife populations require reliable estimates of population size, which can be difficult and costly to obtain. We evaluated how precision in estimates of herd size and abundance varies with sample size and strip width using two field surveys and bootstrap resampling of the field data. We also examined precision under distance sampling and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of both survey techniques. Precision in estimates of abundance increased with increasing sample size and varied with strip width independently of sample size. The hazard rate key function was best for five species in two surveys with contrasting visibility conditions. Precision in density was more sensitive to the number of herds sighted than to variation in herd size and effective strip width for distance sampling. Strip counts produced lower abundance estimates but higher precision than distance sampling. We estimated that distance sampling would cost about US$3.1 km-1 of transect. Strip counts deserve serious consideration for surveys of species that occur at high densities and form large, loose agglomerations but distance methods are suitable for species occurring at moderate to low densities in areas where visibility varies substantially. Distance sampling may thus need to be supplemented by strip counts to efficiently estimate densities of rare, abundant and highly clustered multi-species assemblages of African savanna mammals. In small areas, it may often prove necessary to conduct several surveys to obtain adequate sample sizes for distance models. © 2006 The Authors.
BibTeX:
@article{Ogutu2006,
  author = {Ogutu, J.O. and Bhola, N. and Piepho, H.-P. and Reid, R.},
  title = {Efficiency of strip- and line-transect surveys of {A}frican savanna mammals},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {269},
  pages = {149--160}
}
Ogutu, J., Bhola, N. & Reid, R. 2005 The effects of pastoralism and protection on the density and distribution of carnivores and their prey in the Mara ecosystem of Kenya Journal of Zoology 265:281--293      
Abstract: The overlap of large carnivores, livestock and people can engender conflicts that often threaten the future viability of carnivore populations in the pastoral systems of Africa. A playback survey of lions Panthera leo, spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta and black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas and a transect count of wild herbivores was conducted in the Maasai Mara National Reserve and adjoining pastoral ranches to assess the effect of pastoralism and protection on the density and distribution of carnivores in June 2003. Reliability of the prey counts depended on an assumption of similar observability between the protected and pastoral areas, which we assessed using distance sampling in November 2003 and computer simulations and determined to be similar. Estimates of wild prey biomass density was 2.6 times higher in the ranches (14212 kg/km2) than in the reserve (5472 kg/km2) during this wet season count. Apparent hyena density estimates were 1.3 times higher in the ranches (0.561 hyenas/km2) than in the reserve (0.404 hyenas/km 2), in correspondence with the regional pattern of prey density. This distribution of hyenas is biased towards the reserve, if it is dependent on prey density. Estimates of apparent jackal density were similar in both areas whereas lion density was anomalously 8.0 times lower in the ranches (0.046 lions/km2) than in the reserve (0.369 lions/km2). Lion and hyena densities and prey biomass did not differ between June 1991 (5172.273 kg/km2) and June 2003 (5472 kg/km2) in the reserve, but jackal density increased in the same period. Lions never responded to playbacks in the ranches, so the potential shift in lion behavioural response for different land use zones is another potential explanation for the patterns found here. We think a real shift in lion populations is a better explanation than a behavioural change in relation to playbacks based on additional data from independent systematic and intensive censuses and playback surveys conducted in the ranches. Lion populations in the pastoral ranches seemed headed for extinction, probably owing to conflicts with pastoralism, necessitating urgent conservation interventions that integrate pastoral economic welfare with large carnivore conservation goals to foster long-term viability of lion populations in the pastoral systems. © 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
BibTeX:
@article{Ogutu2005,
  author = {Ogutu, J.O. and Bhola, N. and Reid, R.},
  title = {The effects of pastoralism and protection on the density and distribution of carnivores and their prey in the Mara ecosystem of Kenya},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {265},
  number = {3},
  pages = {281--293}
}
Okamura, H., Kitakado, T., Hiramatsu, K. & Mori, M. 2003 Abundance estimation of diving animals by the double-platform line transect method Biometrics 59:512--520      
BibTeX:
@article{Oka03,
  author = {Okamura, H and Kitakado, T and Hiramatsu, K. and Mori, M.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of diving animals by the double-platform line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {512--520}
}
Okamura, H., Kitakado, T. & Mori, M. 2005 An improved method for line transect sampling in the Antarctic minke whale surveys Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7:97--106      
BibTeX:
@article{Okamura2005,
  author = {Okamura, H and Kitakado, T and Mori, M.},
  title = {An improved method for line transect sampling in the Antarctic minke whale surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {97--106}
}
Okamura, H., Minamikawa, S. & Kitakado, T. 2006 Effect of surfacing patterns on abundance estimates of long-diving animals Fisheries Science 72:631-638   DOI URL   PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{Okamura2006,
  author = {Okamura, Hiroshi and Minamikawa, Shingo and Kitakado, Toshihide},
  title = {Effect of surfacing patterns on abundance estimates of long-diving animals},
  journal = {Fisheries Science},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {631-638},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01193.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01193.x}
}
Okamura, H., Minamikawa, S., Skaug, H. J. & Kishiro, T. 2012 Abundance Estimation of Long-Diving Animals Using Line Transect Methods Biometrics 68:504--513   DOI URL    
BibTeX:
@article{BIOM:BIOM1689,
  author = {Okamura, Hiroshi and Minamikawa, Shingo and Skaug, Hans J. and Kishiro, Toshiya},
  title = {Abundance Estimation of Long-Diving Animals Using Line Transect Methods},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {68},
  number = {2},
  pages = {504--513},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01689.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01689.x}
}
Olawsky, C. D. & Smith, L. M. 1991 Lesser prairie-chicken densities on tebuthiuron-treated and untreated sand shinnery oak rangelands Journal of Range Management 44:364--368     PDF  
BibTeX:
@article{OlaSmi91,
  author = {Olawsky, C. D. and Smith, L. M.},
  title = {Lesser prairie-chicken densities on tebuthiuron-treated and untreated sand shinnery oak rangelands},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {364--368}
}
Oleson, E. M., Calambokidis, J., Barlow, J. & Hildebrand, J. A. 2007 Blue whale visual and acoustic encounter rates in the Southern California Bight Marine Mammal Science 23:574-597   DOI URL    
Abstract: The relationship between blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) visual and acoustic encounter rates was quantitatively evaluated using hourly counts of detected whales during shipboard surveys off southern California. Encounter rates were estimated using temporal, geographic, and weather variables within a generalized additive model framework. Visual encounters (2.06 animals/h, CV = 0.10) varied with subregion, Julian day, time of day, and year. Acoustic encounters of whales producing pulsed A and tonal B call sequences (song; 0.65 animals/h, CV = 0.06) varied by Julian day, survey mode (transit or stationary), and subregion, and encounters of whales producing downswept (D) calls (0.41 animals/h, CV=0.09) varied by Julian day and the number of animals seen. Inclusion of Julian day in all models reflects the seasonal occurrence of blue whales off southern California; however, the seasonal peak in visual encounters and acoustic encounters of D calling whales (July–August) was offset from the peak in acoustic encounters of singing whales (August–September). The relationship between visual and acoustic encounter rates varied regionally, with significant differences in several northern regions. The number of whales heard D calling was positively related to the number of animals seen, whereas the number of singing whales was not related to visual encounter rate.
BibTeX:
@article{Oleson2007,
  author = {Oleson,Erin M. and Calambokidis,John and Barlow,Jay and Hildebrand,John A.},
  title = {Blue whale visual and acoustic encounter rates in the {Southern California Bight}},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {23},
  number = {3},
  pages = {574-597},
  url = {http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.02303.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.02303.x}
}
Oliveira, P., Jones, M., Caires, D. & Menezes, D. 1999 Population trends and status of the Madeira Laurel Pigeon Columba trocaz Bird Conservation International 9:387--395      
Abstract: A survey was undertaken in 1995 to assess the conservation status of the Madeira Laurel Pigeon Columba trocaz, a threatened species endemic to the Island of Madeira. The first large scale survey was carried out 1986, following the cessation of legal hunting of the species, to provide a baseline for future monitoring of population changes. The current study therefore aims to (1) compare population size with those of 1986 and (2) employ distance sampling methods (not used in 1986) to obtain estimates of population density and size. Eighteen transects (13 repeated from the 1986 survey and five new) were conducted in the four main areas of laurel forest. Pigeon numbers had increased on nearly all transects but some of the highest increases, proportionately and often numerically, were in areas with lower numbers in 1986. We estimate the current population to be 10,400 individuals, a considerable increase since 1986, probably due to a ban on hunting. As laurel forest habitat is now very well protected the Madeira Laurel Pigeon is relatively safe from extinction.
BibTeX:
@article{Oliveira1999,
  author = {Oliveira, P. and Jones, M. and Caires, D. and Menezes, D.},
  title = {Population trends and status of the Madeira Laurel Pigeon \textit{Columba trocaz}},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {387--395}
}
Olson, K., Fuller, T., Schaller, G., Odonkhuu, D. & Murray, M. 2005 Estimating the population density of Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa by driving long-distance transects ORYX 39:164--169     PDF  
Abstract: Despite a 75% reduction in the geographic range of Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa over the past 50 years, the species is still recognized as the most numerous large grassland herbivore in Asia. Its actual population size, however, is still disputed, and we therefore estimated its numbers in an 80,000 km2 area in the eastern steppe of Mongolia by driving long-distance (1,200-1,400 km) transect surveys during spring and autumn 2000-2002. Quantitative estimates of gazelle numbers are essential for understanding the causes of changes in the population, and thus devising conservation strategies to assure its long-term viability. Observed herds ranged in size from 1-4,000; among surveys, median herd sizes varied from 14-42. Density estimates varied from 10.7 gazelles km-2 in spring to 11.5 gazelles km-2 in autumn, with total population estimates of 803,820 (483,790-1,330,100 95% confidence interval) and 870,625 (499,432-1,491,278 95% confidence interval), respectively. Confidence limits were wide, and to obtain a coefficient of variation of 20%, transect lengths would need to be extended three- to four-fold. Until more efficient means for conducting population surveys can be implemented, driving long-distance transects, combined with distance analysis, seem to provide the best quantitative estimate of Mongolian gazelle populations. © 2005 FFI.
BibTeX:
@article{Olson2005,
  author = {Olson, K.A. and Fuller, T.K. and Schaller, G.B. and Odonkhuu, D. and Murray, M.G.},
  title = {Estimating the population density of Mongolian gazelles \textit{Procapra gutturosa} by driving long-distance transects},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {164--169}
}
Omoya, E. O., Mudumba, T., Buckland, S. T., Mulondo, P. & Plumptre, A. J. 2014 Estimating population sizes of lions Panthera leo and spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta in Uganda’s savannah parks, using lure count methods Oryx :   DOI    
BibTeX:
@article{Omoya2014,
  author = {Edward Okot Omoya and Tutilo Mudumba and Stephen T. Buckland and Paul Mulondo and Andrew J. Plumptre},
  title = {Estimating population sizes of lions \textit{Panthera leo} and spotted hyaenas \textit{Crocuta crocuta} in Uganda’s savannah parks, using lure count methods},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {10.1017/S0030605313000112}
}
Oppel, S. 2006 Using distance sampling to quantify Odonata density in tropical rainforests International Journal of Odonatology 9:81-88      
Abstract: Quantitative data are essential for many aspects of ecological research. Several methods exist to quantify odonate abundance, but complications may arise when abundances in different habitats need to be compared. In this study, I explored a technique that can overcome the variable detectability of odonates in habitats with different visibility. Distance sampling is briefly introduced and the main assumptions are listed. I conducted line transect surveys using distance sampling protocol over several weeks in a rainforest locality in Papua New Guinea to assess the usefulness of distance sampling. The results suggested that estimates of encounter rate and density of odonates are substantially higher when distance sampling is employed. Density in habitats with poor visibility, like the forest interior, is severely underestimated
by traditional sampling methods, and this can lead to a misclassification of habitats. Distance sampling is a very useful technique for quantitative odonate sampling, but the sampling effort required for precise estimates is very high. For the rainforest locality in this study at least 15 months of intensive sampling would be required. Further limitations of distance sampling are discussed.
Review: 1. The CV that he hopes to achieve is not only unrealistic but also misleading. Take a look at the attached file, if you paste it all into R it will show up plots of effort needed as a function of cv desired, and how something like e.g. cv 15% (still quite ambitious for usual wildlife abundance assessment) would reduce considerably the amount of effort needed. BTW, his numbers are correct, though the formula presented isn't: (L/n) should be used instead of (n/L). It is very annoying that both in the abstract and the discussion he states stuff like "For the rainforest locality in this study at least 15 months of intensive sampling would be required." without acknowledging that no one would realistically expect to achieve a 5% CV.

NOTE:In the file oppel.R - in the pdf folder - are some commands that redo his calculations on effort for a given CV, showing that he chose very badly the CV to achieve.

2. I find very very strange that he keeps saying that the encounter rate estimated by distance is much larger than the one conventional methods produce - what is the encounter rate estimated by distance ? How can it be different?

3. The sentence "...ESW, defined as the width of the transect where all individuals are discovered..." is wrong, awkward and potential dangerous

4. "...habitats. It remains to be shown whether distance sampling is a robust technique that can overcome heterogenous distribution of objects within sampling units (Barry & Welsh 2001; Welsh 2002)...". I dislike this sentence, becase it ignores that it's fine if you have very heterogenous distribution of objects for each given line, say from very clustered populations, provided you have many random lines and on average over all lines a uniform dist arises.

5. I missed the point of "...Violation of a key assumption of distance sampling would lead to high bias, potentially overestimating odonate densities in the habitats under study...". It does depend on the assumption...

BibTeX:
@article{Oppel2006,
  author = {Steffen Oppel},
  title = {Using distance sampling to quantify {O}donata density in tropical rainforests},
  journal = {International Journal of Odonatology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {81-88}
}
Ortega, Y. & Capen, D. 1999 Effects of forest roads on habitat quality for Ovenbirds in a forested landscape The Auk 116:937--946      
BibTeX:
@article{Ortega1999,
  author = {Ortega, Y.K. and Capen, D.E.},
  title = {Effects of forest roads on habitat quality for Ovenbirds in a forested landscape},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {116},
  number = {4},
  pages = {937--946}
}
Ortega, Y. K. & Capen, D. E. 2002 Roads as edges: effects on birds in forested landscapes Forest Science 48:381--390      
BibTeX:
@article{OrtCap02,
  author = {Ortega, Y. K. and Capen, D. E.},
  title = {Roads as edges: effects on birds in forested landscapes},
  journal = {Forest Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {381--390}
}
Osmek, S., Calambokidis, J. & Laake, J. L. 1998 Abundance and Distribution of Porpoise and Other Marine Mammals of the Inside Waters of Washington and British Columbia  :     PDF  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Osmek1998,
  author = {Steve Osmek and John Calambokidis and Jeff L. Laake},
  title = {Abundance and Distribution of Porpoise and Other Marine Mammals of the Inside Waters of Washington and British Columbia},
  year = {1998}
}
Otis, D. L., McDonald, L. L. & Evans, M. A. 1993 Parameter Estimation in Encounter Sampling Surveys The Journal of Wildlife Management 57:543--548      
BibTeX:
@article{Otis1993,
  author = {David L. Otis and Lyman L. McDonald and Marc A. Evans},
  title = {Parameter Estimation in Encounter Sampling Surveys},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {543--548}
}
Otten, A. & deVries, P. G. 1984 On line-transect estimates for population density, based on elliptic flushing curves Biometrics 40:1145--1150      
BibTeX:
@article{Ott84,
  author = {Otten, A. and deVries, P. G.},
  title = {On line-transect estimates for population density, based on elliptic flushing curves},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1145--1150}
}
Otto, M. C. & Pollock, K. H. 1990 Size bias in line transect sampling: a field test Biometrics 46:239--245      
BibTeX:
@article{OTT90,
  author = {Otto,M. C. and Pollock,K. H.},
  title = {Size bias in line transect sampling: a field test},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {239--245}
}
Overton, W. S. & Davis, D. E. 1969 Estimating the number of animals in wildlife populations Wildlife Management Techniques :405--55      
BibTeX:
@incollection{OveDav69,
  author = {Overton, W. S. and Davis, D. E.},
  title = {Estimating the number of animals in wildlife populations},
  booktitle = {Wildlife Management Techniques},
  publisher = {The Wildlife Society},
  year = {1969},
  pages = {405--55}
}
Owiunji, I. 2000 Changes in avian communities of Budongo Forest Reserve after 70 years of selective logging Ostrich 71:216--219      
BibTeX:
@article{Owi00,
  author = {Owiunji, I.},
  title = {Changes in avian communities of {B}udongo {F}orest {R}eserve after 70 years of selective logging},
  journal = {Ostrich},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {216--219}
}
Owiunji, I. & Plumptre, A. J. 1998 Bird communities in logged and unlogged compartments in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management 108:115--126